Correct budding of fruit trees


To be a good gardener and grow a good harvest, you need to know some secrets for proper tree care.

To make the trees tasty and fertile in the summer budding of fruit trees should be carried out... This is not such a difficult procedure, even a novice gardener can master it.

In this article, we will try to reveal the entire technique of grafting trees, as well as the choice of a scion.

What is budding

Grafting is the process of transferring a part from one plant to another, with which it subsequently grows together. You can vaccinate in different ways:

  1. Budding - grafting by the vegetative organ - the kidney. It is cut from a one-year run with a layer of bark and a small patch of wood.
  2. Copulation - grafting with a handle. For the procedure, an annual shoot with 3-4 buds is used.

Budding is the easiest to performsince takes root faster and merges better with the stock.

Why you can perform this procedure

Budgeting is done if there are no trees of the required variety on sale. It is necessary for:

  • increases the frost resistance of the grafted tree;
  • makes better and more valuable varieties;
  • promotes the rapid appearance of the crop;
  • allows you to make the varieties that you need.

If you carry out budding with different varieties to one plant, then this not only saves more space, but also diversifies the taste.

Vaccination terms: spring or summer?

The procedure begins in early August., its duration is 4 weeks. The first step is to inoculate stone fruit varieties (cherry, cherry plum), then - pome varieties (apple, pear).

Wildlife and kidney at the time of the procedure must be of the desired development... The eyes or buds that appear on the shoots should finally form.

This can be defined simply: you need to bend the shoot if a crunch is heard. The rootstocks must develop well so that the bark can be detached.

The procedure is performed before the end of the growing season, in the summertime.

Budding, carried out earlier, threatens with the fact that the cuttings will germinate until the autumn season, and when the first cold weather appears, they die, and if later, they will not take root.

Pros and cons of the method

Like all processes, budding has a number of positive and negative qualities.

Advantages of the method:

  1. Suitable for propagation of various varieties that cannot vegetatively divide.
  2. Provides more active tree growth. An example is euonymus, which grows slowly when grown by seeds.
  3. Branching is improved.
  4. Cuttings are cut at the place of fruiting.
  5. High reproduction rate.

Important information: trees that have been grafted begin to bloom and bear fruit faster. But this leads to the failure of the lateral roots.

The disadvantages include:

  1. A big waste of time for grooming.
  2. Sometimes there may be physiological incompatibility.
  3. Reduces the life of trees. For example, red-flowering chestnuts are very sensitive, they stop growing and gradually die.
  4. May impair the quality of the planting material, especially for ornamental plants.
  5. Slows down growth.

It is important to know that never plant evergreen trees.

Whatever it was, grafting is important for trees, because this is sometimes the only way to reproduce.

Kidney vaccination:

How to choose good grafting cuttings

Cuttings to be used for grafting taken from fruit trees of standard types... It is necessary to monitor the intravarietal selection of cuttings for grafting trees.

Cuttings are not harvested from old and diseased trees. Young varieties that have not yet borne fruit are also not suitable, because it is not completely clear what kind of harvest they will give.

Choose only healthy, strong trees that are more hardy than others.

Eyes and cuttings are not ready for budding at the same time... They start from the south side of the trunk. Cuttings should be cut off at least 15 cm. They should be cut over 2-3 buds.

Shoots of stone fruit trees must be strong, at least 30 cm long. If the shoot is short, then numerous buds begin to bloom, which are not suitable for grafting.

Important information: the process requires fresh cuttings... You need to cut off the leaves from them to retain moisture. Leaf cuttings are preserved for easy budding.

How to properly plant fruit trees

It is quite difficult to carry out vaccination alone, so an assistant is needed.... One person with a sharp budding knife grafts, the other bandages with a cloth made of natural materials - gauze, cotton cloth.

The birds need to be prepared a week before the procedure: for this you need to shake off the soil near the root neck. In parallel, it is necessary to determine the separation of the bark in wild birds, if it is easy, then you can stick it into the bark.

If the separation is bad, then the game must be saturated with moisture so that the growth of the wild is activated before the procedure, and the cambium is attached, which plays an important role in the separation of the bark. The eyes cannot take root on wild birds, from which the bark does not come off badly.

Before carrying out the procedure, the trunks must be wiped with a wet cloth. Only mature eyes are needed for budding... The apical and lower eyes are not used, because they are underdeveloped.

A stalk is cut from a tree along with bark and wood (cambium and sapwood). They form a scutellum.

To get the flap out, slightly below the kidney, it is necessary to make an incision of 15-2 cm in the trunk. Cut off the flap 2 cm above the kidney, leading down with a knife and touching the cambium, bark, sapwood.

The resulting shield is wedged into the bark incision, and then bandaged, closing everything except the peephole. The procedure is carried out in calm, not rainy weather.

Important information: a positive result depends on the professionalism of the graftsman, the speed of budding, the cleanliness and sharpness of the knife, as well as competent dressing.

Seed varieties take root almost always (99%), but stone fruits are much smaller.

Fusion of the cutting with the trunk is fast. Already after 14-18 days, you need to make a check on how the eyes take root.

How to determine the survival rate? There are a number of distinctive features for this:

  • pale green shade of the scutellum bark;
  • the freshness and appearance of the eye;
  • easy, quick petiole separation.

If the eyes do not take root, they become dull, dry, stop separating. At the last stage, they wrinkle and die.

As soon as the procedure is over, cultivation must be done to make the soil less dense. Water the wilds for the winter, hilling is also carried out so that the eyes do not freeze.

If the eyes begin to sprout in the fall, then they are associated with the stem and after the appearance of several leaves, they are pinched so that they ripen faster.

When hilling wilds, it is necessary to dust the shoots that have emerged from the eyes with earth. In March, you need to do a boredom. Already developed shoots are cut off so that a new shoot grows better in spring.

How easy it is to vaccinate (budding):

Prospects for budding

The prospects for this method are great:

  1. It is with the help of it that new varieties of trees can be formed.
  2. Budding helps if the plant cannot reproduce in standard ways.
  3. In a short period of time, you can get a lot of tasty harvest.
  4. Grafting is a tremendous saving of space in the garden. Here it is not necessary to plant male and female plants next to it, but only add a couple of twigs.
  5. You can make a "Garden Tree" - this is the budding of several types of apples or pears on a tree stock. It turns out that first one variety will grow, then another, a third, and now you can feast on different varieties without hassle.
  6. There are varieties that require cross-pollination from different varieties for a larger and better yield. So, if you carry out budding of several types of cherries per plant, you can significantly increase the yield.

As you can see, budding has great prospects. It is good to use it in breeding to create new varieties of fruit trees.

Conclusion

Budding is a good way to make a tree more fertile and healthy.... This is a simple and inexpensive method that any novice gardener can handle.

It is important to learn how to take care of the grafted tree, and you will be assured of a tasty harvest. The main thing is to choose the right cuttings and attach them well to the tree.

This technique should be learned by any gardener who wants to have their own garden.

Budding for beginners - simple and accessible about grafting trees:


Correct grafting of trees. Ways and Tips

In order for the plant to bring a high-quality and good harvest, gardeners graft it. This allows agronomists not only to improve the harvest, its quality, but also to develop new crops. Grafting trees is a complex and painstaking process that requires knowledge, skills and abilities. Let's take a closer look at how plants are grafted.

What is a Horticultural Vaccination?

In unscientific terms, grafting is a way to artificially propagate plants. For this, a part of the cutting of one plant is taken, which is subsequently combined by fusion with another crop. The new (spliced) plant, after grafting, has a scion (grafted part) and a stock (the part that is grafted onto). The result is one plant, the connected parts of which, while developing, affect the development and growth of each other.

Also, grafting of trees is used in cases where their branches are damaged, or if the tree has ceased to bear fruit.

When can I get vaccinated?

Most often, trees are grafted in April until the sap flow has begun, and the bark still tightly wraps around the trunk. If necessary, a re-grafting can be done in May. It is also allowed to vaccinate fruit plants in June. Grafting of trees is carried out in several stages. This is the preparation of the cutting, its storage, subsequent grafting and further care.

What are the ways of vaccination?

Gardeners use two main methods of grafting. It should be noted that the success of the grafting of fruit trees depends on the professionalism of the gardener and his knowledge. It is not enough to know the best ways in this matter. It is important to be able to apply their rules in practice. Let's take a look at some of the most common ways.

Before you start grafting, you need to prepare a stalk. It is taken only from a healthy plant that has already yielded a good harvest. When choosing a stalk, you need to pay attention to its age. Only annual twigs are suitable for grafting. The best and most common methods are budding, copulation.

The essence of budding

Budding is a grafting with the help of a kidney. This method is most suitable for such fruit trees as pears, apple trees, apricots, cherries, plums, cherries. Budding is carried out during the period of sap flow. Work begins approximately 40 days before the scheduled date of vaccination. It all starts with the preparation of the stock. It must be hilled and cleaned of weeds. In dry seasons, the root system should be poured abundantly with water. Requires choosing a place on the rootstock for budding. It should be smooth and even. On the selected dry area, a T-shaped incision is made, into which a shield with a kidney is very quickly inserted. The vaccination site must be wrapped with foil immediately after joining. This promotes rapid accretion and engraftment.

Copulation is a reliable way for a novice gardener

If only a professional can do the budding correctly, then an amateur gardener can also copulate. The essence of the method is very simple.

Copulation is grafting with a grafting. It is carried out before the start of sap flow, namely in early spring. Gardeners especially liked the method of grafting "for the bark". The bottom line is simple. The bark of the tree is carefully peeled off, and a cutting is placed in this place of the cut on the rootstock. The junction is also tied with foil.

Copulation is done not only “into the bark”, but also “into the split”, “into the butt”.

Basic rules for grafting trees

In order for the grafting of trees to be successful, you must adhere to some rules. First, you need to properly prepare the cuttings and learn how to store them. Secondly, for each individual tree, the vaccination period is assigned individually. Third, all cuts and cuts are made with a sharp, thin, dry and clean knife. Fourthly, the vaccination sites must be wrapped with foil as soon as possible after joining.

Of course, in theory, everything seems simple and fast. However, tree grafting is a complex process that requires special knowledge and practical skills.


Terms of budding fruit trees

One of the methods of plant propagation is summer peephole grafting. When should budding be done to ensure the best survival rate? The best time for budding is from mid-July to late August, during the summer sap flow. The "sleeping eye" operation is performed. The grafted kidney takes root in the fall, and germinates only in the spring of next year.

How to do budding to ensure the maximum survival of the scutes? Seedlings with a good annual growth rate. If the seedlings are overgrown, they are pruned in the same way as for grafting grafts. Then, in July of the same year, budding is done on strong growths of the current year. If many annual growths are formed, some of them are removed or pinched.

For budding fruit trees in summer, cuttings are harvested on the day or the day before budding from fruitful, well-developed and healthy trees. Leaves are immediately removed on them, leaving only the base of the petiole up to 1-1.5 cm in length and stored until budding in a cool place, avoiding drying out.

Preparation of rootstocks for budding consists in freeing the lower part of the stems from the ground, if the rootstocks have been earthed up, and cutting out the lateral shoots so that the boles are free for 10-15 cm above the root collar. If necessary, watering the seedlings is carried out a few days before budding so that the bark is well separated. Immediately before budding, the stems are wiped with a rag so that the wound does not get dirty during the inoculation.

Budding, like all other types of vaccinations, is best done at a cooler time of the day - in the morning or in the evening. It must be done quickly, avoiding drying out of the sections. Do not touch the cut surface with your hands.

As you can see in the photo, when budding on the stock, a T-shaped bark incision is made:

A shield 1.5-3 cm long is cut out on the handle, in the middle of which there is a well-formed kidney. When cutting the flap, the bark and a thin layer of wood are completely captured on the handle. The prepared flap is quickly but carefully inserted behind the bark of the T-shaped incision. The place of budding is tied with a film.

After 10-12 days, the survival rate is checked. In the established scutes, the bark is fresh, not wrinkled, light, the left petiole does not dry out, it is easily separated from the base. The harness is removed in the spring of next year before bud break. At this time, they make sure that the shoot is not damaged by pests and diseases. Protect the vaccine from damage. Remove all shoots that may wake up below the budding site.

In the second year of vegetation, a crown and skeletal branches are formed on the budded seedling.

Budding has advantages over other types of grafting, because it is simple in technique, gives a high percentage of survival and requires fewer cuttings.

Remember, you can not pupate in the rain and during the hot hours of the day, as the survival rate of the eyes decreases. In the first case, the flap gets wet, and in the second it dries up.

Here you can watch a video of budding trees in order to better understand the technology of the process:


Benefits of budding

The benefits of budding fruit trees are obvious. But one should understand the merits of this process.

Many experts say that from almost any formed bud of the selected plant, you can get a healthy fruit tree with all the benefits of the selected variety. The budding process itself is quite simple and a novice gardener can handle it. The procedure is performed quickly enough.

Due to the small grafting area, the integrity of the stock is practically not disturbed, and the twig is not injured. If, for one reason or another, you did not succeed in performing the procedure correctly the first time, you can re-inoculate in the same rootstock.

The advantage of budding is the fact that a minimum of rootstock material must be used for grafting. This is especially important if the grower has only a few cuttings.


Plant care

Using any of the presented methods, you must carefully observe the plant and provide it with proper care... After the engraftment process, you can remove the bandage or change to one that is weaker. Synthetic dressings can be left as they are stretchable. Young cultural shoots remain weak and helpless for a very long time. It is for this reason that they should be tied, thereby protecting from strong and cold winds. You will protect the new plant from the attacks of birds and animals with attached metal wire arches.


Budding into a T-shaped incision can be carried out in two periods: in spring (with a sprouting eye) and in summer (with a sleeping eye). Budding with a sprouting eye is carried out in the spring using a shield cut from a lignified annual shoot that grew last summer. But budding with a sleeping eye can be successfully carried out during the period of active summer sap flow, which usually begins in the second half of July and lasts a maximum of mid-August. These terms may shift slightly in one direction or another, depending on the specific natural conditions of the area and the given year. It is at this time that budding is carried out, since during this period the activity of the cambium is greatest and, accordingly, the bark is easily separated from the stock. Sleeping eye buds are taken from the shoots of the current year.

The success of the vaccination depends on the quality of each successive operation, which compose the budding process. And you need to start by choosing a place for grafting on the rootstock, which should be smooth, without any knots, swelling and roughness. It is imperative to locate the place of budding on the northern side of the rootstock, especially in the southern regions, or to protect the rootstock from direct sunlight by shading it. On rootstocks that have grown from seeds, the grafting site is best located at a height of 5-7 cm from the soil surface, and on clonal rootstocks, a little higher, at about 10-15 cm. If there is a bend on the rootstock, the budding should be placed below the place bending.

After choosing a site for inoculation, it should be thoroughly wiped off dirt and dust, and heavily soiled areas, if necessary, rinsed with clean water. Then, in the prepared grafting site on the rootstock, a T-shaped incision must be made. To do this, you first need to make a cross section of the bark about 1.5 cm long, and then down from its center at a right angle, make a longitudinal section 3 cm long, and make it in the direction from bottom to top, bringing the knife to the cross section.

Now, at the intersection of the cuts, you need to use a knife blade, slightly tilting it to the right and left, to separate the cut corners of the bark from the wood. After that, a knife bone should separate the bark from the wood along the length of the entire longitudinal cut. The rootstock is now ready to receive the scion.

Obtaining bud buds for budding is a very important step in this process. First, a transverse incision is made under the selected bud at a distance of 1.3-1.5 cm, after which the flap is cut off from the shoot. To do this, you need to retreat 1.3-1.5 cm above the kidney and grab the entire kidney in width with a knife blade, leading it smoothly without jerks and distortions from the top of the shield to the transverse incision under the kidney. When the slices meet, the flap can be detached from the cutting.

If all actions are performed correctly, the cut flap will be thin, flexible, with a small layer of wood just under the bud, the bud will remain intact. It is impossible to cut off the shield with a thick layer of wood over the entire area of ​​the shield, otherwise it will bulge in the section, and its thickness will prevent the coincidence of the cambial layers of the rootstock and scion. However, the absence of wood on the shield suggests that the conductive beams are cut, and this will have an extremely negative effect on the survival of the shield. A correctly cut flap is up to 4 cm long and slightly curved. So, the finished and correctly cut scion shield is in your hands.

The technique of carrying out the process of budding itself. First, on the rootstock with a knife bone, bend the bark along the entire length of the incision and insert (push from top to bottom) into the T-shaped incision the flap all the way to the stop so that the kidney is placed symmetrically relative to the edges of the bark of the longitudinal incision. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the bark does not bulge up.

If the cut flap is too long, then when it rests with its lower end against the end of the cut, you need to cut off the excess upper part of the flap with a knife along the border of the transverse cut on the rootstock. And when the shield is inserted into the rootstock incision as a whole, the bark of the rootstock must be slightly squeezed with the thumbs of both hands from the bottom up so that it fits snugly against the cambium, which will prevent the oxidation of plant tissues at the grafting site. After that, the place of budding must be immediately tied tightly with polyethylene tape, no more than 1.5-2 cm wide. The strapping starts from the top and, performing successive turns, moves down. The kidney is bypassed, leaving open, the harness is finished below the end of the longitudinal cut, securing the end of the tape under the last turn. Tight, correct strapping ensures good contact of the shield with the stock and contributes to its better survival.

After 10-15 days, it is necessary to check the budding for survival. The surest sign that the budding has taken root is the petiole falling off with a light touch to it. A shriveled bark of the scutellum, a dried kidney, or if the petiole sits tightly and does not fall off, indicate an unused budding.


Grafted plant care

If in the first days after vaccination there is dry and sunny weather outside, the wilds also need to be spud or shaded on the side where the budding was performed. Otherwise, the sun and dry air will not allow the kidney to take root.

If, when budding with a "sleeping" eye, the buds begin to sprout in the fall of the same year, they should be pinched after 3-4 leaves. This will allow the grafted eyes to winter safely.
So that the grafted buds do not freeze in winter, it is necessary to water the wilds well in the fall and spud them 10 cm along with the eyes.


Watch the video: εμβολιασμός δαμάσκηνο τρυπάνι. Εμβόλιο τρυπάνι


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