Did you eat a lot this Christmas too?
But what have you done with apple peels, orange peels, cheese peels, fish flakes, olive pits, meat fat and all those leftovers you haven't eaten?
In this article, we explain how to use Christmas organic waste.
The organic substance it is nothing more than the set of organic compounds (compounds in which carbon is present) of animal or vegetable origin. It is in a sense "The soul of the soil", the one that allows the growth of our plants. The organic substance, in fact, is full of useful elements: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, etc. All components that the plant feeds on and which therefore cause its growth.
The compost, on the other hand, also called compost or compost, it is the set of earth and the result of humification of the organic substance. In other words, once the organic substance has decomposed (that is, it has been reduced to small elements, after the chemical bonds between them have been broken), a set of earth and nutrients highly assimilable by all plants is created.
Imagine you are sitting at the table, ready to eat. If I hand you a pan of lasagna in front of your eyes, would you eat it all in one bite? No, right? What would you do?
What we would all do is take a piece, put it on the plate and, with a fork, divide it into other small pieces which then will be our morsels. Here, unfortunately, plants cannot do this.
Plants, in a sense, they are like children: we must be the ones who divide their food and make them as assimilable as possible. But how?
There are gods microorganisms, especially fungi and bacteria, which decompose the organic substance. Some can be purchased commercially and could be very useful if you want to speed up the decomposition process.
Humic acids, for example, are one of the results of the decomposition of organic matter.
To use organic Christmas residues in your garden, you can put them both whole and after composting.
Usually, I suggest you avoid throwing them whole directly on the ground because animals could go there to feed on it, and because, in any case, it would take much longer to decompose, especially now that temperatures are low and the ground may be covered with snow or ice. So here is where it comes in handy to compost. But how? Is simple!
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The Christmas period is always a chaotic time, in which more waste is produced and often a lot is wasted. Below we got help from CIC - Italian Composting Consortium to understand how to deal with organic waste.
Christmas and New Year are two critical moments when it comes to waste, especially those organic, whose production tends to increase. A first step is therefore to reduce food waste, starting from what you put in the shopping cart, then thinking carefully about the portions, but also paying attention to what you throw in the bin. For this, the Italian Composting Consortium (CIC) has drawn up a handbook for the separate collection of quality organic waste and without waste, to be kept at hand during all holidays.
We thank CIC - Italian Composting Consortium for these valuable tips and we hope that you can follow them avoiding unnecessary waste and above all harmful to the environment!
Earthworms are producers of an extraordinary natural soil conditioner, which is called vermicompost or humus. This humus is a fertilizer with multiple properties: it improves the structure of the soil, making it soft to work and increasing its water retention capacity, and makes all the nutrients they need available to the root system of crops.
The fact that the vermicompost is 100% natural makes it possible to avoid using chemicals and makes crops healthier, and is also allowed in organic farming. Humus is a very interesting product on the market, it can be sold to farms, especially organic ones, to gardeners and nurserymen, but also to those who cultivate a vegetable garden as a hobby.
Organic waste, or wet waste, is sometimes even called wet / organic, make up about half of the total waste that is produced in a family, and all of that are part of it biological materials, and therefore not synthetic, which can never be missing at home, if only because, for the most part, they are represented by leftovers such as fruit peels, meat fat, etc.
Organic waste can also be recycled, and the most common use made of it is the creation of compost, the fertilizer for plants. If you have a garden, a vegetable garden, or plants, you can bury this kind of waste to make it fertilizer, or you can create real compost.
Wet / organic waste must be disposed of in the appropriate bin which is brown in color. The waste that can be included in this case are:
On the other hand, waste from other materials that can be otherwise recycled (glass, plastic, etc.), used diapers, oil and medicines, cigarette butts or fabrics should not be placed in the appropriate container.
Once these wastes are created, they must be carefully separated from the others, the green and wet fractions must be divided into different bags which must always be biodegradable. At this point it is possible to dispose of everything in the appropriate bins.
The ecological function of the earthworm is to transform organic waste into humus, this can allow the company that practices earthworms to add a profit by charging for the waste disposal service.
Earthworm farming is a perfect solution to comply with the Nitrates Directive, which regulates the obligations that livestock farms have to meet. Earthworms can therefore be used as an ecological method to recover manure from various farms (rabbits, cattle, pigs, horses, poultry,…).
The value for those who raise earthworms is double: on the one hand you get feed for your worms, on the other you get income for disposal.
Earthworms are able to transform not only manure but in general any organic material: foliage, paper, cardboard, shredded pruning residues, vegetable, garden and kitchen waste, weeds, residues from the food industries, sewage sludge, ...
Given the earthworm's ability to transform organic waste, it is possible to use worm composting as part of separate collection, to treat the wet fraction (FORSU). This is the least expensive way to recover this type of waste, which is why some public administrations have introduced this system as innovative as it is simple and cheap. Some examples: Marzi, San Cipriano Picentino, Paterno Calabro and Saracena.
Article written by Matteo Cereda with the technical contribution of Luigi Compagnoni, agricultural entrepreneur expert in earthworm farming.
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Congratulations on your work which is understood to be the result of so much passion and professionalism.
I recently resumed running the small family farm located in the Tuscan Apennines, exactly in the Casentino, about 800 meters above sea level. In my very small business I would like to always move with the principle, (once so obvious in the common activity of peasants, and today, alas, declaimed and little practiced) of circularity and complementarity of the different activities. This is why I am already practicing natural fertilization using the compost produced from the vegetable waste and manure of my 24 hens. I would now like to start humus production with a first litter in order to be able to adequately integrate the fertilization of the soil. for this I would have some questions:
1) are there any contraindications for earthworm farming in relation to the altitude, which in my case is 800 meters above sea level and the presence of snow and cold in the winter season?
2) currently I have grown about 1000 square meters of soil as a vegetable garden. These are well-drained terraces and non-clayey soil of good fertility. But I don't know the ph…. How many square meters of litter do I need to prepare in relation to the square meters of cultivated land and to fertilize? (I specify that the crops are for family purposes and include all types of vegetables as well as a plot of potatoes).
Hi Luca. I share your principle of circularity, so I fully support you, you do very well to try to create a self-sufficient system. In biodynamics, the farm is conceived as a single organism and it is believed that manure and compost derived from the place where it is grown are more suitable. On your first question I believe you can raise earthworms without a problem. For a more authoritative opinion you can try to contact Luigi Compagnoni, through the website of Lombricoltura Compagnoni, he is the person who helped me on the technical side of earthworm farming and is one of the leading Italian experts in the sector. On the second question: you can measure the ph in a very simple way, with a little distilled water and a litmus paper, the square meters of litter I would not be able to advise you exactly, if I were you I would start on a small scale, gradually expanding until you can dispose all your waste and to produce enough humus.
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Already with the first spring sunshine in the garden, the work begins. Plants need to be prepared for the summer season, cut, whitewashed, treated with pests. Towards the end of March, right along the ice crust, the first fertilizers are introduced. The choice of them is huge and novice gardeners can [...]
Already with the first spring sunshine in the garden, the work begins. Plants need to be prepared for the summer season, cut, whitewashed, treated with pests. Towards the end of March, right along the ice crust, the first fertilizers are introduced. The choice of them is huge, and novice gardeners may find it difficult to understand what and when to do. In this article, we will talk about proper garden nutrition.
The most common fertilizers with phosphorus content are phosphorus flour and superphosphate.
Tip: Phosphoric mineral fertilizers are not recommended to be applied simultaneously with lime, as it interferes with the assimilation of phosphorus by the roots.
How to use potash fertilizer correctly:
Popular fertilizer containing nitrogen, which is suitable for fertilizing the garden in the spring:
The highest percentage of nitrogen is in ammonium nitrate, where it is 1/3 of the fertilizer. But taking it into the ground should be taken into account that it significantly acidifies the earth, so together with it it is recommended to make lime.
How to use nitrogen fertilizers correctly:
You can not only buy fertilizers for the garden, but also make them yourself.
How to properly use manure as a fertilizer:
Bird litter is worth mentioning separately, insofar as the concentration of nutrients for plants is significantly higher than cow and horse fertilizer.
This is an excellent organic fertilizer, which practically does not require financial investments.
Hardwood ashes make an excellent addition to mineral fertilizers. It is rich in phosphorus, potassium, calcium and a number of other microelements, which are easily assimilated by plants.
How to make ash correctly:
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Come già sottolineato, il liquido contenuto negli steli della stella di Natale può essere urticante. Per questo motivo la pianta natalizia deve essere tenuta lontano dalla portata non soltanto dei bambini, ma anche degli animali domestici. La stella di Natala infatti, se ingerita da parte degli animali, produce una linfa molto irritante per il loro apparato digerente ed è causa di vesciche dolorose nella bocca, accompagnate da spasmi allo stomaco. (LEGGI anche: (Se si comporta così, il tuo gatto (o il tuo cane) ha mangiato la Stella di Natale e deve essere portato subito dal veterinario
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