Grapes are not an easy culture, and in summer they require not only sunny weather, but also special care. Collecting the poured bunches from his vines is pleasant to anyone, but not everyone knows how to grow them. Many mistakes on this path are made by beginners. Fortunately, any can be corrected and thereby gain invaluable experience in viticulture.
Almost every mistake in the summer care of grapes turns into a decrease in yield and freezing of vines in winter. Bushes can recover, but it will take at least 2 years. Even the most insignificant mistake, in the eyes of a beginner, will deprive him of the pleasure of picking large and sweet grapes in the current and next season. Today there is an opportunity to gain experience from experienced winegrowers via the Internet, so it is not at all necessary to learn from your mistakes, it is better to take into account others and not make them.
Some gardeners, having planted grapes for the first time, begin to water it along with vegetable crops. This absolutely must not be done. Grapes have a powerful root that goes deep into the ground, they can extract moisture themselves. Watering is necessary once every 3-4 weeks, spending 4-5 buckets under a fruiting bush. This is done only in arid regions. If the summer is rainy in your area, then there is no need to water at all. Excessive moisture leads to the fact that all air spaces between the lumps of earth are filled with water, oxygen is displaced. The roots do not breathe and rot, after which leaves and vines begin to hurt and die.
The flooded roots of grapes do not breathe, they rot, the nutrition of the whole bush is disrupted, it begins to wither
Often gardeners pay attention to this issue only in the spring: they lay humus and ash under the bushes, believing that this is enough. However, in summer, during flowering and growth of ovaries, grapes need increased doses of potassium, and this element is not enough in ash. Experienced growers advise, during the formation of buds (in June) and after flowering (in July), to apply 100 g of potassium sulfate under each bush. You can scatter the powder on the ground and loosen it or combine top dressing with watering by dissolving the specified amount of fertilizer in 10 liters of water. Potassium is responsible for the redistribution of nutrients, directs them to actively growing parts of the plant, in the summer in grapes these are berries. In addition, it is essential for the maturation of the bark. With a deficiency of potassium, the harvest will be poor, and non-lignified vines will freeze in winter.
In June-July, grapes need potash fertilization
An adult bush of grapes in summer gives root shoots, as well as tops are barren shoots that only take away strength from the bush and create thickening. As a result, the bush grows unnecessary stems and leaves to the detriment of the harvest. Moreover, the vineyard is poorly ventilated and illuminated, which favors the development of fungal diseases. In June - July, watch out for bushes, remove shoots growing from the ground, as well as those extending from vines, but not having flower brushes on them.
Grapes, like raspberries, in the summer give root shoots, as well as sterile shoots, without pruning the bush will turn into thickets
On each vine, stepchildren grow from the axils of the leaves, they must be pinched over the second leaf. Some growers recommend breaking these shoots out entirely, but others dispute the method, claiming that such an operation will provoke the awakening of the wintering buds, and there will be no harvest next year. Therefore, it is better to shorten the stepsons, and the leaves remaining on them will, through photosynthesis, supply additional nutrition to the tied bunches. If the stepchildren do not break out or shorten at all, then the consequences will be the same as in the previous paragraph: a decrease in yield, the risk of developing diseases, the vines will not have time to ripen (woody) by winter.
Stepchildren form in the leaf axils, they need to be pinched
Grapes are attacked by mildew fungi, anthracnose, oidium, and various spots. All this is prevented by any fungicide. It is dangerous to wait for the manifestation of diseases, often signs appear when the berries have already set and cannot be treated with chemicals. Infection from leaves passes to clusters. We'll have to cut them off and throw them away, and process the bushes. To prevent this from happening, spray in advance, before flowering, you can over unblown buds and a second time after flowering. Preventive treatments destroy fungi at the very beginning of their development, in addition, modern fungicides have a long period of protection. Fungi attached to leaves and fruits will die even after 3-4 weeks after applying the drug and will not harm the grapes. Horus, HOM, Ridomil, Thanos, Strobi are considered effective.
Grapes ruined oidium, preventive spraying would help to avoid trouble
This is the most painful question. It is a pity for gardeners to remove fruitful shoots and extra bunches. But such pity or greed leads to an overload of the bush, he does not have enough strength to pour all the berries, they grow small, often do not have time to get sugars before the cold weather arrives.... Of course, the vines and fruit buds of the next year do not ripen, the current and future harvests are under threat. Many varieties tend to plant 2-3 brushes on one shoot, but this shoot can be poured, for example, only 1 kg of berries. Which is better: 3 small brushes of 300 g or one weighing 1 kg? In small and medium-sized berries - they have more skin than juicy pulp, the taste is unimportant from this. In addition to the bunches, it is necessary to ration the fruitful shoots. Their number is individual for each variety and region. In one case, the bush is capable of pouring 20 large clusters, and in the other - less than a dozen. How much will have time to ripen on your grapes, you will have to find out empirically. Start small, leaving 6-7 fruitful shoots per bush.
Do not be greedy, remove the extra bunches, the remaining ones will grow larger and sweeter
In our Siberian region, grapes are still a rarity, but frost-resistant and early ripening varieties began to appear in stores. She planted Muromets and Solovyov 58. Last summer the first harvest was already being harvested. The berries are medium-sized, but the taste is real, grape. Muromets in our climate normalizes itself, grows very reluctantly, last year gave only 3 shoots with tassels, this year - 4. But Solovyov generously overgrows with vines, each knits 2-3 brushes, and even a mustache has buds. In the first year of fruiting, I left 7 shoots per bush, each with one brush, removed the extra ones. I learned to navigate by the crowns - the tops of the vines. They should be crocheted. A straightened crown signals that the shoot has stopped growing, which means that the bush is overloaded... I remove 1-2 of the shortest and thinnest ones together with the bunches, then I watch. If the remaining ones grow, the crowns no longer straighten, then everything is fine, the bush has enough strength.
The tops of the shoots are crocheted, which means that the bush has enough food for all the vines and bunches
Don't repeat the mistakes of inexperienced winegrowers. Proper care in summer is the key to a good harvest, strong immunity of the bushes and their safe overwintering. The grapes require constant attention, but he also thanks him generously - a delicious sunny berry.
Carrots can be grown anywhere as long as they are planted in good soil and properly watered. Not only the correct development, but also the taste of root crops depends on the quality of the soil and the location of the garden. The planting site should be sunny and well ventilated. If this condition is not met, then instead of juicy, sweet and crunchy carrots, tough roots of dubious taste grow, which are popularly called "fodder".
The soil for planting carrots should be loose and nutritious. Sandy loam or medium loamy soils with a high humus content and neutral acidity are perfect. This composition can be achieved by introducing organic matter: compost or dry humus at the rate of 1 bucket / 1 m². In loamy soil, in addition to organic matter, sawdust (3 l / 1 m²) or coarse sand should be added - these materials will make the earth looser. To improve the taste of root crops, any potash fertilizer, including wood ash, should be added to the soil.
Subject to all planting rules, further carrot care is not difficult. It is only necessary to loosen the aisles, remove weeds and water on time. But even these activities can be avoided by mulching the beds. There are many benefits to using mulch on carrots. Its main purpose is to maintain soil moisture, but, in addition, mulch creates a favorable microclimate for plants, being at the same time a shelter and fertilizer. Any organic material (peat, dry humus, sawdust, straw) or black film (agrotextile) can be used as mulch.
The grapes are exposed to insect pests and diseases that spoil the harvest and lead to the death of the vine. To save the plant, you need to use special tools. For this purpose, ferrous sulfate is suitable - a reliable protector and fertilizer for good fruiting.
If, after wintering, the vine is affected, it is necessary to correctly and timely start its treatment with the means available in the gardener's arsenal, otherwise the vineyard will die.
Vine spraying begins at the first noticeable signs of damage. Of the pesticides, the following drugs are most often used:
If symptoms of diseases and, at the same time, insect damage are visible on the vines, then fungicides and insecticides can be mixed for treatment.
Effective vine protection products are available for home making. Treatment according to folk recipes lends itself to such ailments as:
To protect the vines, you need to adhere to certain processing times. In spring and summer, up to 5 procedures may be required:
Vines spraying should be carried out following the scheme. Otherwise, they will have no effect. Processing grapes in the fall from diseases and pests should be done at least 2 times before the winter shelter. This is September-October. Preventive spraying is carried out on bare vines in late autumn. The procedure falls in November.
After harvesting, gardeners begin the procedures for the care and feeding of the vineyard. If done correctly, the vine will survive the winter well. Autumn processing of grapes is extremely important, since the plant is most vulnerable during this period, the risk of diseases and pests increases. For protection, you can use folk or chemical remedies. The latter are more toxic, the former are safe. Experienced farmers skillfully combine them.
The vine is susceptible to pests such as aphids, copperhead, various types of ticks, caterpillars and beetles. For processing grapes in the fall before shelter for the winter, you can use the preparations Actellic, Fosbucid, Zolon, urea, Apollo, Karate, for diseases - copper sulfate, Acidan, Bordeaux liquid, Topaz, Fundazol.
All drugs must be used according to the instructions, observing safety rules.
1 part of slaked lime can be mixed into a solution of copper sulfate. The resulting solution is effective in combating fungal and infectious diseases of the vine. Consumption rate - 2 liters per grape bush.
From aphids, copperheads and other pests in the fall, it is worth spraying the grapes with urea, which will require 500-700 g per 10 liters of water. The liquid can be used for root feeding.
When choosing this method of protection, the gardener needs to know which substances are most effective. You can spray grapes for the winter with the following compositions:
It is a versatile tool when working in a garden, which can be used as a top dressing or to destroy diseases and pests. It is irreplaceable in the care of the vine, contains useful substances. Its advantage is its effectiveness and low toxicity compared to other drugs.
Iron is an essential element for plant growth and fruiting. With a deficiency of this element, immunity decreases, so the vineyard is often sick and exposed to pests.
Iron sulfate provides protection against the following diseases:
Vitriol solution helps to restore damage to the bark, makes it elastic, improves fruiting and quality of berries. In the northern regions, it can be used to artificially slow down bud opening, then they will not freeze.
In order not to harm the vine, it is necessary to observe the spraying time and the proportions of the finished product.
The spring application of the preparations protects the vine from fungal diseases and helps to survive the frost. Top dressing can be done to get a good harvest in the fall.
The time when you need to start spraying the grapes depends on the growing region. In the southern regions of the country, it is advisable to carry out the first treatment in early spring, in the northern regions - in late March-early April. The main rule for starting work is that the kidneys are swollen by this time, you need to catch them before they open and sap flow. One more condition: the daily air temperature is not lower than +5 ˚С. If there are frosts at night, the procedure should be postponed until warming. It is necessary to re-process the grapes 1-2 days before bud break. If symptoms of the disease are visible, then a third spraying will be needed. To treat grapes with iron sulfate in the spring, take a solution of weak concentration: 50-100 g of the product for 10 liters of water. With the resulting composition, pour abundantly over the vine and the ground around.
Before processing, you need to remove dry foliage, trim damaged or frozen shoots.
For spring feeding of grapes with iron vitriol, spraying is carried out when 4-5 leaves appear.The solution is prepared at the rate of 20-30 g of the product per 10 liters of water. With chlorosis, a disease that occurs against the background of iron deficiency, the concentration is increased by 2 times. The vine is treated every 3-4 days, constantly reducing the dosage of the drug by 10 g. In the case of grape diseases, the concentration of the drug in the solution should be higher: in 10 liters of water, 0.3 kg of ferrous sulfate must be diluted and mixed thoroughly. The frequency of treatments is 2-3 times with an interval of a week.
Dry ferrous sulfate is used for application directly into the soil during soil digging in early spring. Consumption rates - 100 g / m2.
During this period, spraying is most justified. The treatment of grapes from diseases and pests can be carried out in the fall both for medicinal (when symptoms of diseases are present) and for prophylactic purposes. You need to spray after pruning for the winter, when the leaves fall. This is the end of October and the beginning of November.
The solution is prepared from 0.3-0.5 kg of the substance per 10 liters of water. For prophylaxis, reduce the concentration to 50 g. A weak solution is also suitable for root feeding.
The processing of grapes with iron sulfate must be done before the shelter. If you cover the vine without spraying, the fungus will multiply there, these are ideal conditions for it, and therefore the plant is unlikely to be saved in the spring. For the winter, you need to fertilize the vineyard with compost or manure, you can add potash and phosphorus fertilizers. Then sprinkle with iron sulfate and cover the plant for wintering.
Most often used as covering materials:
To hide the grapes in the ground, you need to make a groove up to 30 cm deep, into which you carefully lay the vine, pin it with metal staples. Cover the top with boards, and then with polyethylene, cover with a layer of soil. Leave small holes for ventilation. In the spring, when the threat of frost has passed, remove the shelter.
The drug has poor compatibility with other drugs. It cannot be mixed with copper sulfate, lime, compounds of zinc, calcium, magnesium, boron, phosphorus.
After processing the vines with ferrous sulfate, other preparations are allowed to be used no earlier than 2 weeks later.
The addition of citric acid is allowed: 2 tbsp. spoons per 10 liters of ready-made solution of ferrous sulfate. As a result, you will get an effective remedy for carbonate and non-infectious chlorosis.
Iron vitriol is a reliable protection against diseases and pests of the vine. They must be processed both in autumn and spring. If there are signs of illness, then the frequency of spraying should increase.
Immediately after the flowering of fruit trees, watering is also possible, but deep, along the periphery of the crown, with the introduction of fertilizers. All incompletely fertilized flowers will crumble, which will improve the condition of full-fledged ovaries.
Water in mid-May regardless of rainfall: train your garden to “drink” regularly at the same time throughout the growing season. Berry trees should be watered much more frequently due to their fibrous root system. And by the end of May, under good weather conditions and agricultural technology, you can try the first fresh berries of garden strawberries.
Pay special attention to the foliar feeding (spraying on the leaf) suggested in the calendar.
Do regular deep watering, that is, monthly, the last summer - in the first ten days of August, and the subwinter - in October.
On fruit crops cut in autumn or spring, tops are growing back in May. Until the shoots are lignified, they are in a herbaceous state, they must be broken out and not allowed to appear during the entire growing season. What work should be done in the spring in the garden to correct the mistakes?
It is good during this period to carry out (until mid-June) green operations on cherries, cherries (especially on them), apricots, peaches, to pinch (pinch) the growth points of young shoots. In cases of delay, in the second half of the month, you will have to model the crown of your trees with a pruner.
After green operations, continue spraying late varieties of apricots, cherries, cherries from fungal diseases with one of the copper-containing preparations or their substitutes, and from cherry fly, plum moth and other pests that appeared during this period, add an approved insecticide to this solution (Karbofos, Fufanon and etc.).
After trimming plants in the garden in early spring, they are fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers (saltpeter, urea or bird droppings). You can make at least 3-4 foliar dressings on the leaves with a urea solution (30-40 g per 10 l of water) with an interval of 2-3 weeks or at least 2 times with the addition of Novosil (3 ml per 10 l) to relieve the stress state of the tree , increasing his vitality.
It is possible until mid-May to re-graft young fruit trees aged 2 to 10 years, provided that you have a preserved stalk of one-year growth of the last year (with non-swollen buds).
In the first decade of May, we finish planting strawberry seedlings. Existing peduncles must be removed so as not to weaken the plant.
A vineyard consisting of several shrubs is planted only after careful preparation. It is important to consider the distance between grapes when planting, soil fertility and environmental conditions. The distance between the bushes is not chosen by chance, because the quality and juiciness of the future harvest depends on the location of the seedlings.
The distance between the bushes of grapes when planting
How to plant different types of shanks correctly? How to choose a variety, what scheme to apply when planting and what you need to know about planting rules.
The distance between the bushes is calculated in advance. Planting your own vineyard is not easy, but exciting. Not every grower knows about the distance at which to plant grapes, and the growth and health of bunches in the future depends on the location of the seedlings. It is impossible to transplant the shanks, especially for beginners who do not know how an established vine will behave. Planting occurs only once, and the distance between the bushes cannot be changed. Grapes are an unpretentious plant that requires special care. When planting, the grower takes into account the size of the future vineyard, soil characteristics and the characteristics of the selected variety. Grapes love sunshine and moisture. Fertilizing and watering the soil is considered the main and mandatory care for the bush. Seedlings are prepared since winter, moisturizing and keeping the shanks in a secluded dark place.
With the arrival of warmth, in early spring or even at the end of winter, a person begins to prepare the ground. There is nothing difficult in planting, if each stage is carried out on time. There should be a distance between the cuttings that will provide moisture and fresh air to each seedling. The grapes will start growing much faster if there is a lot of free space between the shanks. However, planting cuttings too far apart is also not recommended. A large distance will not allow you to create an elegant green fence, which can be used to decorate a gazebo or an unsightly wall of an old utility building. When planting, it is worth considering all the accompanying factors, the sun and shade side, natural ventilation. A person who decides to plant a lush vineyard needs to ensure his own comfort so that caring for the plant is not a burden. The grapes will grow beautifully and yield a stable harvest if serious mistakes are not made when planting cuttings in the ground.
How to calculate the distance between two bushes? A grower with experience in planting his own vineyard or a beginner should take into account that the layout of the planting concerns not only the length of the planted row, but also the distance between individual bushes. Why is it so important to equip shanks in a certain delimited area? The distance between the bushes affects the technical and economic performance of the grapes. It is difficult, if not impossible, to correct the mistakes made during landing. Improper placement of seedlings that grow harms not only the grapes, but also neighboring crops in the garden or on the land. When planting, the density of the future vineyard is taken into account in advance.
Experienced winegrowers deliberately influence the quality and quantity of the harvest. Simple manipulations significantly save time for bushes care, and increase the fruitfulness of all grapes. In recent years, among breeders, the theory of the dependence of the amount of harvest on two indicators of the vineyard - the number of eyes on the bush and the location of the bushes - has become increasingly popular among breeders. The maximum vigor of growth is achieved due to timely pruning of the vines and correct planting of the shanks. How to properly grow grapes for a large harvest? The growth force of the bushes depends on the following factors:
It is best to start growing grapes growing in successively planted bushes. It is recommended to plant the vine on well-fertilized soil with prepared moistened pits. How to properly plant the shanks?
When faced with different bushes, an experienced grower can develop his own line of behavior and care of the vine. Early varieties, which mature by the end of July or August, grow worse than varieties with an autumn harvest. Such a concept as short sleeves indicates the degree of growth of the vine on the sides. Early varieties do not need a large space and such bushes can be planted at a distance of 1.5 meters. If you plant the seedlings closer, the bushes will grow crooked. It is not worth waiting for a big harvest from crowded bushes. Late grapes include the following frost-resistant and hardy varieties:
Planting late varieties at a distance of 1.5 meters is unwise and dangerous for the plant itself. A strong vine with good consistent growth needs space. The minimum distance between the shanks for late grapes is 2.5-3 meters. Each meter allocated for a seedling pays off with a tasty, healthy and environmentally friendly harvest. It is possible to plant varieties at a shorter distance, but only under the condition of constant pruning of excess pagons. The bush grows in cramped conditions worse.
Even well-fertilized soil does not save the day. The berries from such a bush are tasty, but not large enough. In order to grow an entire vineyard, you need to arrange the shanks in rows. The planting scheme of different varieties contributes to the rapid appearance of bunches, but an uncircumcised vineyard quickly starts up in green growth. It will be of little use. The vineyard, planted in rows, begins with three bushes. The earth is pre-dug up and moistened. Chubuki and their replenishment are engaged in parallel with how the land for planting is saturated with useful substances and fertilizers.
The distance between the rows of bushes (seedlings) takes into account the size of the entire land plot. It will not be possible to plant the shanks in rows (with a large distance from each other) in a small garden. For early varieties with three planted seedlings, you do not need much space, they can be planted near the fence or at home. In calculating the required distance between the bushes, a ready-made scheme is useful, drawn up for different varieties and taking into account the quality of the soil layer and the amount of watering.
The distance between the rows of bushes can vary depending on the purpose of the grapes.
Sit down in rows of industrial or domestic varieties. There are no unnecessary problems with the seedlings and their preparation, but significant changes occur in the distance of the bushes from each other. Production vineyards differ in the way they are irrigated and processed. Adequate vines care is provided by automated irrigation and fertilizer installations. In such conditions, the arrangement of the bushes is different from what can be seen in the private sector. A more cramped planting site and irrigation pattern do not go against the quality of the crop. A vineyard planted in rows with different varieties of seedlings brings constant profit.
Not grafted vines are easy to handle. Bushes are located a meter from a neighboring sapling. A greater increase in industrial varieties ensures timely watering and fertilization of the soil. Fertile soil reduces gaps from one sapling to another. In industrial conditions, special devices and supports are used to reduce the planted areas without harming the culture. A trellis with entwined vines allows the vineyard to grow upward rather than on the sides. To calculate the distance between the bushes, you will not need special knowledge in breeding if the planting of grapes is carried out at home.
It is very difficult to determine uniform norms for watering carrots. Water consumption and the frequency of procedures depend on many factors: the growing season, weather, soil conditions and even the variety. If we talk about average figures, then at the initial stage of growth, 4-5 liters of water / 1 m2 of planting area are considered the norm. By month it looks like this:
Carrots prefer liquid root dressing, so irrigation can be combined with fertilization. It is recommended to feed carrots with liquid solutions of mullein, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate. In order not to burn the roots, it is better to apply fertilizers in small furrows in the aisles - in moist soil, nutrients will quickly reach the roots. In the phase of formation of root crops, it is recommended to water the plants with a solution of ash, from this they will become much tastier.
If you quickly answer the question, then trees live from 15 years - 80,000 years. Can not be!? In this case, the article will have something new to learn. Read on!
First, let's list what affects the lifespan of trees:
|Homemade plum||40||Elm smooth||150|
|Alder gray||70||Warty birch||170|
|Brittle willow||100||Aylant the highest||200|
|Thuja western||100||The apple tree is wild||200|
|Silver birch||150||Lebanese cedar||350|
|Silver maple||150||Spruce prickly||500|
|wild Cherry||150||Common false beetle||700|
The age of the longest living trees is already impressive. But there are also much longer living trees. They are kind of record holders.
|Layel's larch||1917||European olive||3000|
|Oriental plane tree||2000||Yew berry||4000|
However, nature did not stop there either. There is such a thing - clonal trees. They are connected by roots and in fact are identical organisms to each other.
|Palmer Oak||13 000|
|Norway spruce||9 550|
So trees that live a thousand or two thousand years are not fiction. Although it is difficult to accurately determine the age and the data are given in some examples as indicative, the fact remains that such trees exist.
Clonal trees are huge organisms. Pando, for example, is 42 hectares and weighs 6,000 tons. Stand alone, these are quite familiar trees in appearance, their maximum age is 4800 years. Which is also impressive.