Returning spring frosts can cause irreparable harm to newly planted vegetables, as well as fruit trees and flowers growing in your garden. But unpleasant consequences can be avoided if you properly prepare for the upcoming frost.
The essence of this method is to make fires throughout the garden. They will create a smokescreen that warms the air and softens the effects of cold on plants. Any material that smolders well is suitable for this method, such as straw, sawdust, dry foliage, and so on. It is also important that the fire smolders as slowly as possible. This will create a lot of smoke and protect your garden as efficiently as possible. To achieve long smoldering, burn the material wet. For 1 acre of land, one fire will be required, about 40-60 cm high and 1.5 m wide. You can start smoke when the air temperature drops to 0 ° C, making fires from the leeward side of the site. Smoke heaps need to be maintained until dawn, when freezing temperatures reach their peak. But keep in mind that this method is suitable only for mild frosts (no more than –4 ° C), since the smoke warms the air by only a few degrees. Also, do not forget that smoke can get into the neighboring area, which the neighbors will definitely not be happy with.
The creation of shelters is considered the easiest way to protect plantings from frost. Almost any materials that can become an obstacle to cold air are suitable for it. When choosing this protection option, keep in mind that the shelters should not touch the surface of the plants. Therefore, for tall seedlings, bushes and trees, you will need to build small greenhouses. The frame can be made of reinforcement, sticks or plastic pipes. The finished structure is covered with two or three layers of spunbond or plastic wrap: the stronger the frosts, the more layers will be required. You can also cover tall seedlings with cut plastic bottles. To protect simple beds, agrospan, agrofibre and plastic wrap are suitable. Also note that the material used must be transparent to allow the plants to receive sufficient sunlight.
This method is effective even if the air temperature drops sharply to -5-7 ° C. It is convenient to use sprinkling on an area with a stationary irrigation system, but if necessary, you can do with a simple hose with a nozzle. Irrigation should be started a couple of hours before frost. Most often this is done closer to dawn. Under the influence of low temperature, the liquid will evaporate, and the rising steam will warm the air. Thanks to this, the cold will not be able to reach the surface of the earth and harm the root system of plants.
Simple watering protects plants from frost as well as sprinkling. This method is suitable for seedlings of any vegetable crops, but it is more effective for shrubs and trees. After watering, the moisture gradually evaporates, thereby warming the air and preventing the plantings from freezing. Please note that only warm water (about 10 ° C) should be used to achieve the desired result. Each bed is spilled with 3-5 buckets of liquid, and it takes 5-10 buckets for one tree or bush. These simple methods are quite enough to prepare the garden for return spring frosts. To effectively protect plantings, it is enough to choose only one of the described options.
Preparing the soil for spring sowing of flowers
Very soon the time will come to prepare the soil for spring planting of flowers, already in mid-April, when the soil is ripe, it is not so difficult to check the degree of its "ripeness". To do this, it is enough to dig, break a lump of earth with a shovel. If it is cut like clockwork, dividing in layers, then it is still too early, and if the lump crumbles from the impact, then the time has come for spring digging.
If on your site in the fall, an autumn digging of the earth has been made, and the soils themselves are quite loose and fertile in themselves, then you will have to spend a minimum of effort. The usual digging of the soil, loosening with a rake and shaping future flower beds is what you have to do.
Choice of crops and planting sites
The choice of a planting site, both in the narrow and in the broad sense of this concept, largely determines the development of plants, their ability to grow, flowering and fruiting. In a broad sense, the planting site refers to the climatic conditions of the area where the garden is laid.
Climate, as a long-term weather regime, is one of the main characteristics of any locality. The climate is determined by the influx of solar radiation, the processes of circulation of air masses, the direction of the prevailing winds, the average annual precipitation rate, the nature of the underlying surface and depends on the latitude and altitude of the area, proximity to the sea coast, the features of the relief and the location of the area on a hill or in a depression. During the year in a certain region, constantly repeating average values of air and soil temperatures, atmospheric pressure, duration of solar irradiation are formed, dominant wind directions are formed, and the whole complex of these indicators is repeated with varying degrees of accuracy year after year. The vegetation period of plants depends on the listed climate parameters. The growing season is understood as the period of the year during which, due to meteorological conditions, the vegetation process of plants is possible. In a temperate climate, the growing season approximately corresponds to the period from the last spring to the first strong pre-winter frosts. For the viability and development of a plant in a certain area, it is necessary that its life cycle be consistent with the periodic change of climatic phenomena observed there. A plant takes root and develops in a certain area only if its growing season is fully utilized from climatic spring to autumn without the risk of damage to the plant in the inevitable onset of a cold period. Thus, the rhythm of the vegetation of plants must be consistent with the climatic rhythm. If there is a discrepancy between the vegetative rhythm of the plant and the change in climatic conditions during the season, it suffers, lags behind in development, does not realize its capabilities, for example, does not bloom or bear fruit and may eventually die. When a plant is transferred to a climate that is not suitable for it, a mismatch between its vegetative rhythm and the climatic one occurs, it starts growing too late, develops slowly, not having time to get stronger, and is damaged by the first frosts. Or, conversely, the plant enters the growth phase prematurely and is exposed to late spring frosts; at an early start of the growing season, the end of the development process begins earlier and the plant does not fully use the climatically favorable time. The decisive role in determining the suitability of a plant for a particular locality is played by the length of the growing season in given climatic conditions. The length of the growing season is defined as the number of days per year with temperatures above 5 ° C, that is, the temperature that is considered effective for plant growth. On the territory of Russia, various climatic zones are distinguished, from those where the growing season is 150 days a year or less, to those where plant growth proceeds continuously. In areas with a short growing season, growth rate is a key factor in determining resistance to adverse external conditions. Plants must complete their annual development cycle at the optimum temperature. Therefore, in these zones, varieties of vegetable and fruit crops are grown, characterized by a short ripening period, late flowering and early fruiting. At the same time, when cultivating, for example, fruit trees, which are characterized by a dormant period in winter, in zones with a long growing season, plants observe year-round growth, which impairs the quality of fruiting.
Of course, plants have internal resources that allow them to adapt to environmental conditions. The so-called phytohormones act as intermediaries between the hereditarily fixed functional program of the plant and climatic factors; they help the plant adapt to environmental conditions, coordinating its vital functions (growth and development, assimilation of nutrients, water exchange) in accordance with climatic factors unfavorable for the plant. However, such an adaptation of a plant to unacceptable environmental conditions always negatively affects its growth and fruiting, even without dying, the plant loses in development.
It is customary to say about plants that will grow in a certain climate that they are resistant to the unfavorable conditions of a given area. Winter hardiness depends on frost resistance and adaptation to the existing seasonal changes in weather conditions. Thus, plants that are winter-hardy in subtropical regions are not so in more northern latitudes and, therefore, need protection. Conversely, subarctic plants accustomed to short growing seasons and prolonged dormancy will not be able to grow in areas with elevated temperatures.
There are three main types of climate: maritime, continental and temperate. The maritime climate is observed on land areas adjacent to the seas and oceans, and is characterized by high air humidity, large amounts of atmospheric precipitation, low annual and insignificant daily temperature variability. In regions with a maritime climate, there are no extreme temperature regimes, summers are hot, but high summer temperatures are mitigated by air humidity and heavy rainfall, winters are warm, the transition between seasons is smoothed. The continental climate dominates in the interior areas of the continent far from the seas and oceans, where there is a predominance of air masses of continental origin and, in contrast to the sea climate, is characterized by sharp changes in temperature indicators throughout the year, significant daily fluctuations in air temperature, low air humidity, small amount of precipitation. on the whole, the variability and instability of all these indicators. The change of seasons is usually quite abrupt, winters are frosty with low atmospheric pressure, summers are hot and often dry. The temperate climate is a transitional type between the maritime and continental climate, without extreme indicators of the latter and is characterized by a clear seasonal rhythm of temperature indicators, average air humidity, a fairly mild change of seasons, mild winters and cool summers.
Within each of the main types of climate, there are also transitional regional or local varieties of climate. So, for example, the height of the area above sea level or the features of the relief can determine local climatic differences, which can be quite significant. The main factor that softens the climate is the proximity of the area to the sea coast. Compared to continental areas, coastal areas are warmer in winter and colder in summer. In mountainous areas, lower temperatures and significant rainfall are usually observed. Sometimes there are areas on the leeward side or protected from rain by an upland, where there is little rainfall. The leeward side is usually east of an upland that obstructs the prevailing westerly winds. The height of the area above sea level plays an important role in the formation of the climate. The higher the place, the colder the soil. For every 75 m above sea level, the temperature decreases by 0.6 ° C on average. In summer, this factor is not significant, but in spring it leads to a later start of the growing season. Special climatic zones in which there is a particularly successful combination of temperature, humidity, prevailing winds include, for example, zones suitable for viticulture or the cultivation of other crops with special requirements. If you choose crops for the garden, the requirements of which fully correspond to the climatic conditions prevailing in this region, this will ensure their good survival rate, successful development, fruiting, resistance to diseases and undemanding care. Of course, it is possible to breed plants with higher requirements relative to climatic indicators,
Features of the local climate are formed by such factors as altitude, terrain, proximity to water, the direction of the prevailing wind and some others.
1. The water surface of the lake creates a milder climate on the shore and increased humidity.
2. The slope is oriented to the north and receives less heat and sun rays during the year at a certain angle of the sun. 3. The southern scpon is facing the sun and therefore does not lack solar heat.
4. In lowlands, frosts are frequent due to the accumulation of cold air flowing down the hill, their probability is especially high at night.
5. At the top of the hill, the air temperature is 1-15 ° C higher on average in relation to the air temperature at the foot of the hill.
6. A forest area located across the direction of the prevailing wind protects the field from the wind, reducing its strength and preventing possible damage
but it will take a number of efforts to create the right conditions for them.
In addition to the decisive climatic conditions of the region, the microclimate in the garden is very important for the successful cultivation of plants, which you can form yourself to a certain extent.
Formation of the microclimate of the garden
The process of forming a microclimate in a garden area begins already with a thoughtful arrangement of all objects on it, placing settings, fruit trees, shrubs and other crops on the surface of the site, taking into account the sun and shade. The very location of the site on a terrain with a certain relief affects the distribution of sunlit and shaded zones on the site, which largely determines the types of cultivated plants. The greatest amount of light and heat falls on the surface of the southern slope of the site, since the soil surface is at a right angle to the incidence of sunlight. An area that is flat or located on other slopes is illuminated by the sun at a sharper angle and therefore receives light and heat less intensely and in a shorter period of time. An area shaded by trees and buildings, cooler and therefore less suitable for plants requiring sufficient light, is ideal for plants adapted to these conditions. The northern sides of the site receive less light than the southern sides, while the eastern and western sides receive full sun for about half the day.
When faced with an impenetrable fence, the air currents create strong turbulences that can damage the planting of crops.
Air-permeable hedges reduce wind speed and impact on crops
Dense plantations of trees and shrubs can stop the movement of cold air masses
Cold air rushes down the slope and collects in the lowlands
On a flat surface of the site, the preferred direction of placement is north-south. The house in the northern part of the site protects it from the wind, the sunlit walls heat up, and the plants planted near the walls of the house receive heat from them, reflected sun rays and reliable protection from frost, the southern sunny part of the site remains free for planting various crops. Sun exposure is perhaps the main condition when placing a vegetable garden. Almost all types of vegetables are very responsive to the sun's rays, the more time the sun illuminates them during the day, the greater the yield, the better and more aromatic the fruits, the lower the nitrate content and the higher the storage capacity. This also applies to aromatic plants and herbs, which, growing in shaded areas, lose their spicy qualities and aroma due to a decrease in the content of essential oils. When locating a vegetable garden on a hillside, the southern and south-western side is ideal, where the intensity of the sun exposure is extremely high. However, the drying effect of the sun must be compensated for with abundant and regular watering.
The type of soil on the site and the methods of cultivating it are also of great importance in the process of creating the microclimate of the garden. During the day, the soil stores heat from the sun, and then usually releases it at night when the air cools. Thus, the soil acts as a heat accumulator, and the heat that it emits at night protects the plants from frost.
Soils vary in their ability to release heat accumulated during the day. Clay soils warm up slowly, but retain heat for a long time. Sandy soils absorb and
Choosing a landing site, placement errors and ways to compensate for them
Consequences of an error in crop placement
Carefully prepare the beds intended for strawberries and strawberries in advance, seasoning with organic and mineral fertilizers. Remove all weeds from the soil. The ideal soils for growing strawberries are sandy loam, organic-rich soils, light loams and sod-podzolic soils. Strawberry does not tolerate acidic soils. Therefore, if the soil in your garden is acidic, produce it 2-3 years before planting strawberries. Add 200-300 g of lime or dolomite flour to one square meter of area.
Strawberries are not very fond of mineral fertilizers. They can be introduced into the soil only during soil preparation, but not at the time of planting. For digging, add 6-7 kg of humus or compost, per 1 sq. m. If the soil is poor, double the dose. In heavy, clay soil, add sand, one bucket per square meter. m. You can replace organic fertilizers with green manure plants. They are sown in spring or summer, after which the green mass is embedded in the soil. A good result is obtained by introducing wood ash, superphosphate (30-40 g per sq. M), potash fertilizers (15-20 g).
In one place, strawberries and strawberries are grown for 3 years. They can be planted in three terms: spring, summer and autumn. The advantage of planting in spring is that the plants give a high yield the next year. Strawberries planted in spring form strong rosettes of leaves, while many flower buds are laid.
Strawberries can be planted in one line or two lines. With the one-line method, observe the distance between rows 60 cm, between plants in a row 15 cm.With a two-line method - between lines 60 cm, between rows in a line 30 cm, in a row between plants 15-20 cm.In the rows, dig deep enough holes so that the roots are free to take an upright position. Place the plant in the hole, holding it with one hand, so that the central leaves, not yet unfolded, are at the level of the soil. Fill the hole with the other hand with soil and compact well. After planting, water and mulch.
Among green organic fertilizers, green manure is distinguished. These include peas, vetch, broad beans, lupine, buckwheat and other plants. To fertilize the garden plot, a mixture of legumes and non-leguminous green manures is often used. But are such plantings effective as fertilizer? Definitely yes. Their nutritional value for the soil is equal to that of manure.
Siderata are sown after harvest. When the seedlings have acquired a good green mass, they are mown. Then the soil is plowed or covered with a layer of mulch. Plants rot and saturate the soil with nutrients.
In order for green manure to serve as a fertilizer, they must be embedded in the soil.
Benefits of using green manure:
Most fruit growers for keeping the trunk circle clean and for digging it up, that is, for black steam under an apple tree or pear, cherry or plum, and so on. At the same time, a one-time digging of the soil will not solve much; it is better to carry them out four or even five times per season.
Usually the first time the trunks are dug up early in the spring, when the snow melts and the soil warms up... Digging at this time allows the soil to quickly warm up to a great depth, and then it is enough to wait a week, let it warm up well, and you can safely mulch it with compost with a layer of a couple of centimeters, giving the plants additional nutrition. In addition, the forgotten compost will inhibit the growth of weeds, and moisture evaporation will reduce, and further soil overheating will reduce. You can also combine soil digging with composting with the introduction of fertilizers, for example, nitroammofoska in liquid form (a tablespoon in a bucket of water and a couple of liters under a tree).
At the same time, try to dig up the soil not right at the trunk itself (in stone fruits, it is generally dangerous to do this, there is a sensitive root collar: moisture will collect and the neck will begin to flutter), because here, basically, there are thick roots that hold the plant, but a little further, on 12-15 cm from the trunk (in this zone, the most active roots are often located). The benefits of such (correct) digging will be maximum.
Important! When digging the soil around the tree, place the shovel with an edge (along the path of the roots, and not across their path of growth), only in this way the risk of injury to the root system of the tree will be minimized.
Carry out the second digging of the soil in the middle of summer., combine it with the introduction of potassium sulfate (15-20 g per square meter, also better in liquid form), removing weeds and, if necessary, watering (a pair of buckets under a tree). Then you can mulch with 0.5 kg compost for each tree (after digging).
Important! When applying raw compost under stone fruit plants, try to retreat from the root collar, in order to avoid damping, 2-3 centimeters, in no case do not pile fertilizers on it, including other types of mulch.
The need for a third digging is usually determined as the near-trunk strip is clogged with weeds and the soil is compacted., also carry out weed removal and fertilization, but this time wood ash (a source of potassium and trace elements, like soot) or soot, 250-300 g for each plant. You can also mulch the plants with compost, one kilogram each.
The fourth soil digging can be carried out in September, it is permissible to combine it with water-charging irrigation, pouring 5-6 buckets of water under each plant for three or four days. At the end (after digging), so that the moisture does not evaporate, you can also mulch the surface with compost a centimeter and a half thick. Compost mulching can help protect roots that are accidentally damaged during digging.
The final digging of the soil, which is already the fifth in the account, can be carried out in just 5-7 days before the onset of a period with stable negative temperatures.... Here you need to rid the trunk circle of all plant residues, dig it up and mulch it with humus, a layer of 4-5 cm, in order to save the roots from freezing.
Based on historical sources, it is known that in Russia already in the XI century. this culture was grown in the monastery gardens of the Novgorod and Pskov regions. For the first time, information about it as a medical culture is found in therapists and herbalists of the 15th-16th centuries. The history of Russian gardens in the Moscow State is closely connected with the cultivation of black currants. Its wild thickets were found in abundance along the banks of the Moskva River. By the way, according to some oral folk legends, the most ancient name for the Moskva River was Smorodinovka. Numerous historical documents report that already at the beginning and middle of the 17th century. in the gardens near Moscow, a large place was occupied by plantations of black currant.
Black currant (lat.Ríbes nígrum) is a deciduous shrub, a species of the genus Currant (Ribes) of the monotypic Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae).
Black currant is one of the most beloved berries. In addition to its great taste, black currant is very beneficial for the health of the body. Due to its medicinal properties, black currant is often used in folk medicine for medicinal and prophylactic purposes.
Black currant is a relatively young crop. She was not known to the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Currently, the largest land area in gardens is allocated for this culture.
Black currant fruits are characterized by a valuable chemical composition - they are rich in vitamins, microelements and other biologically active compounds, sugars, organic acids, pectin, tannins, dyes.
The acidity of fruits of various varieties of black currant varies within very significant limits - from 1.8 to 4.36%. The berries of the varieties Cantata 50, Pilot Alexander Mamkin, Belorusskaya Sladkaya and Minai Shmyrev are distinguished by the lowest acidity. The same varieties, as a rule, have a higher sugar content, which leads to a pleasant taste of the fruit.
Organic acids are mainly represented by citric, malic, oxalic (very little), and paracumaric acids. Sugars contain more fructose, less glucose and sucrose. Berries contain up to 3% fiber. When berries ripen, the total content of pectin substances decreases and sugar content increases. There are very few carotenoids in currant berries. The content of the most active B-carotene (provitamin A) is 0.08-0.11 mg / 100 g of wet weight of black currant fruits.
The fruits are rich in vitamin E (0.72 mg / 100 g), surpassing almost all fruits and berries, with the exception of sea buckthorn, cloudberries, rose hips and chokeberry. 100 g of fresh berries contain 0.86 mg of vitamin K.
Fruits and leaves of black currant are a valuable source of vitamin C. The content of ascorbic acid in berries varies and depends on many factors: varieties, weather conditions of the growing season, age of plants, degree of fruit ripeness, agricultural techniques and a number of others.
Green fruits are the richest in vitamin C; as they ripen, the C-vitamin activity decreases and drops especially sharply when berries are overripe. Cloudy, cool summer with a lot of precipitation, especially at the end of June and the first half of July, negatively affects the content of ascorbic acid in berries.
Young leaves, collected after flowering, contain up to 400 mg / 100 g of vitamin C; as the fruits form and ripen, the C-vitamin activity of the leaves sharply decreases. After picking the berries, only 1 / 9-1 / 16 of the initial amount of vitamin C is found in the leaves. Phenolic compounds of black currant berries are mainly represented by anthocyanins, flavonols, leukoanthocyanins and catechins (with a significant prevalence of the first two groups).
Fruits also contain small amounts of other vitamins - B1, B2, PP, B6, folic acid, pantothenic acid, etc. It should be emphasized that only pantothenic acid is found in quantities that may have some practical value in the human vitamin balance (0, 4 mg / 100 g). According to this indicator, black currant significantly surpasses strawberries, raspberries, sea buckthorn, red currants, apples, pears, oranges, lemons, grapes, peaches and a number of other fruits and berries.
Black currant berries are one of the most valuable sources of biologically active phenolic substances, capillary-strengthening, anti-sclerotic, anti-inflammatory, vasodilating (antispasmodic) action.
The leaves are even richer in the indicated compounds. It was found that 100 g of fresh leaves contain the following amounts of phenolic compounds (in mg): flavonols - 980-2700, catechins - 574-3320, leukoanthocyanins - 504-1320. It is known that black currant leaves are often a component of recipes for pickling and soaking vegetables and fruits. They not only contribute to the preservation of the natural color of raw materials, but also enrich the products with phenolic compounds and vitamin C.
Currant bushes are sold both in pots and with bare roots.
Planting holes with a depth of 40-45 cm are prepared several weeks before planting so that the soil has time to settle well. A bucket of humus mixed with earth and 100 g of superphosphate is placed at the bottom of the pit.
In central Russia, currants are best planted in the fall, from the second half of September to early October. Spring planting is also possible. In order not to expose the plant to unnecessary stress during transplanting, plant it as early as possible in the spring, as soon as the soil allows and until the buds of the plant have blossomed. It is most optimal that the distance between the bushes is 1.8 m. The planting hole should be of sufficient diameter to freely accommodate the roots of the plant.
When planting black currants, ensure that the plant is properly buried. The root collar of the seedling is deepened by 5 cm. From this, the plant forms additional roots, and the bush becomes thicker. After planting, the soil is carefully compacted, watered abundantly and mulched with humus.
After planting, all the shoots of the seedling are cut off, leaving only 2 buds above the ground. This may seem like a radical pruning, but it helps to develop a strong root system and a well-branched bush.
The main care measures for currants are watering, weed control and pruning. Watering is especially important during dry periods. Currants also consume a lot of moisture during the beginning of the formation of berries and their ripening. So that weeds do not take moisture from the currants, they must be destroyed.
With the onset of fruiting, currants should be regularly fed with fertilizers. In the fall, 100-120 g of superphosphate and 30-40 g of potassium chloride are introduced under each bush. In early spring, 40-50 g of nitrogen fertilizers are applied. This is followed by annual mulching with a mixture of rotted manure and peat. This mulching not only fertilizes, but also helps to retain moisture and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Pruning of a fruiting bush is carried out annually, as a rule, in late autumn or early spring. About 20% of the shoots are removed from the middle of the bush to keep it clear and not thickened. Then, about 15% of older shoots are removed, as well as all diseased and pest-affected branches.
Reproduction of black currant
Black currants are propagated by layering, lignified and green cuttings.
One of the most common breeding methods is layering. The method of propagation by horizontal layers is considered the simplest and it is used most often.
If there is a high-yielding variety in the garden, then using this method of propagation, in one year you can get powerful seedlings with a well-developed root system. For rooting, shallow grooves are dug out in advance near the bushes.In early spring, before the start of sap flow, annual shoots are shortened by 1/5 of their length in order to activate bud germination. Shoots with trimmed tops are laid on the bottom of the grooves, pinned to the ground with wooden or metal hooks and do not fall asleep until the green shoots that have grown from the buds reach a height of 8-10 cm.
To keep the branch well in the hole in the desired position, in the center of the hole it is fixed with a wire hook. Then the hole is covered with soil and watered regularly during the summer. A prerequisite for the successful rooting of cuttings, which begins in July and goes actively, starting from the end of August, is the moist state of the soil.
By autumn, the branch takes root well and you get a full-fledged seedling with a powerful root system and 2-3 thick branches. In the same autumn, the rooted cut with a pruner is cut off from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
The method of propagation of shrubs by horizontal layers allows you to get a large number of seedlings, because 5-7 shoots can be taken from a healthy strong bush.
Reproduction by lignified cuttings is also not difficult and is available to every amateur gardener.
In this case, use healthy, undamaged annual shoots as thick as a pencil. Shoots are usually cut in December, although they can be harvested throughout the winter. The prepared cuttings are stored in different ways. They can be dug in wet peat with sawdust and the boxes can be placed in a cool room, where it is necessary to maintain a temperature of 0— + 5 ° C and ventilate. With another method of storage, the cuttings, after cutting, are dipped in water with their ends for a short time, and then placed in a plastic bag. The bags are kept in the refrigerator.
Some gardeners do it even easier: in a raw potato they make several holes along the diameter of the cuttings, insert them, tie the ends together, wrap them with a damp rag and then paper.
In spring, cuttings are planted in the garden as early as possible on specially prepared beds with 20 cm spacing and a row spacing of 15 cm, and immediately after planting they put labels with the name of the variety. Labels are best made from food grade aluminum foil.
You can easily write on them with a ballpoint pen, squeezing out the letters (you get a rotting, indelible, non-wetting and not fading in the sun "eternal" label).
From mid-June to mid-August, berry bushes can be propagated by green cuttings, but June cuttings root better. For green cuttings, lateral shoots are used, which have completed their growth and formed an apical bud.
Cuttings in the garden can be planted both in autumn and early spring. For planting in spring, cuttings 18-20 cm long are harvested in October November, i.e. at the beginning of winter, before the onset of severe frosts, which can destroy the buds of the currant. They are taken from annual shoots growing from the root or grown on two to three year old branches. It is better to take cuttings from the middle of the shoot. Their thickness should be 8-10 mm. Immediately after cutting, both ends of the cutting are dipped in melted garden varnish or paraffin. With this treatment, they do not lose moisture during storage. Then the cuttings are tied in bundles according to varieties, labels are carefully tied, wrapped first in slightly damp paper, then in plastic wrap, buried and stored deep in the snow until planting. You can also store it in your home refrigerator on a shelf under the freezer.
In the spring of next year, young plants, obtained by propagation with lignified and green cuttings, are transplanted to a garden bed. Planting of plants can be carried out with the onset of warm days, in mid-April. A later transplant is best done in cloudy weather. Plants are placed according to a 40 x 50 cm scheme, watered abundantly, and in sunny weather they are shaded.
Many amateur gardeners, when growing black currants in private farms, not only use the technology of already known methods of propagating this culture, experiment with new developments of scientists, but also use their own. Familiarize yourself with them, try to master them, and when you see the results, remember with a kind word those who shared their experience.
A variety of medium ripening, universal. The bush is medium-sized, medium-spreading. The berries are round-oval, black, with a medium skin, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 1.4 g. The variety is frost-resistant, disease susceptibility and pest damage is low.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is vigorous. The berries are round, with an average weight of 1.7 g, black, shiny, with a skin of medium density, sweet and sour taste. The variety is winter hardy.
Medium late ripening. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. The berries are round, black, with an average weight of 0.95 g, with a medium skin density. The variety is winter hardy. It was damaged by diseases and pests to a weak degree.
Universal purpose, early ripening. The bush is medium-sized, compressed. The berries are round, almost black, with a thin skin, sweet and sour, with aroma, with a delicate taste, with an average weight of 1.8 g. Frost-resistant, slightly affected by diseases and damaged by pests.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. The berries are round in shape, with an average weight of 1.9 g, almost black in color with a thin skin, sweet and sour taste. The variety is resistant to low temperatures, relatively resistant to diseases and pests.
Medium late ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.2 g, round, almost black, with a skin of medium thickness, sweet and sour taste. The variety is resistant to diseases and pests, including columnar rust.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. Berries with an average weight of 1.9 g, round-oval, black. The taste is sweet and sour, with aroma. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases, relatively winter hardy.
Medium late ripening, universal use. The bush is vigorous, medium spreading. The berries are round, black, not pubescent, with a skin of medium thickness, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 1.3 g. Medium resistant to anthracnose pathogens, powdery mildew, kidney mites and moths.
Medium ripening, universal use. The bush is medium-sized, medium-spreading. The berries are round, black, with a thin skin, sweet-sour taste, with a delicate delicate aroma, with an average weight of 1.3 g. The variety is resistant to freezing, highly drought-resistant. It was not affected by diseases and was not damaged by pests.
Universal purpose, medium late ripening. The bush is medium-sized, slightly spreading. The berries are round, almost black, with weak pubescence, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 1.4 g. The variety is frost-resistant, slightly affected by diseases, damaged by pests.
New varieties of black currant
The main advantages of the new varieties of black currant are the convenient shape of the bush, large fruit size, good taste of berries and resistance to pests and diseases.
Selechinskaya 2 - hardy and drought-resistant. Resistant to fungal diseases, retains leaves until late autumn. Productivity 4-5 kg per bush. The bush is vigorous, erect. The berries are very large (2.9–5.5 g).
Medium black currant varieties
Dubrovskaya is a winter-hardy variety, relatively resistant to kidney mites, moderately resistant to anthracnose, immune to terry. Productivity is 3 kg per bush. The bush is undersized, compact. Berries of medium size.
Dobrynya is resistant to drought and spring frosts. It is immune to powdery mildew, moderately resistant to anthracnose and kidney mites. The bush is weak, erect. The berries are very large.
Perun - resistant to drought, frost, moderately resistant to powdery mildew, anthracnose, kidney mite, slightly affected by aphids. Productivity 3-4 kg per bush. The bush is medium-sized, semi-spreading. The berries are large, with a strong aroma.
Mid-late black currant varieties
Vologda is winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew, relatively resistant to kidney mites, susceptible to rust. Productivity 3-4 kg per bush. The bush is vigorous, the berries are large, they do not ripen at the same time.
Katyusha is winter-hardy, resistant to anthracnose, relatively resistant to powdery mildew, susceptible to kidney mites. The bush is vigorous, slightly spreading. The berries are large, with a very dense skin.
Mermaid - early fruiting. Winter-hardy. Resistant to powdery mildew and kidney mites, moderately resistant to septoria, weakly affected by anthracnose. Productivity 2.4-3.5 kg per bush. The bush is vigorous, medium spreading. The berries are very large.
Vigorous - high winter hardiness. Relatively resistant to powdery mildew, rust, kidney mites, moderately resistant to anthracnose. Productivity 3-4 kg per bush. The bush is medium-sized, semi-spreading. The largest of the late varieties (berries weigh up to 7.8 g), but in the middle lane the berries are not so large.
Pests and diseases
Currant kidney mite
Damages mainly to the kidneys of black currant. Females hibernate inside the buds. Affected kidneys can be found in the fall in a rounded and slightly enlarged shape. In early spring, during the period of swelling of the buds, oviposition begins, which continues for a month. After its end, the overwintering females die. After 1-2 weeks, larvae hatch from the eggs, which also feed inside the kidneys, 2-3 weeks after hatching, the larvae turn into females.
Control measures. If the plants are poorly populated with a tick, the bushes are inspected 2-3 times before the buds begin to bloom, removing and destroying infected buds or shoots. The best time to fight a kidney mite is the period of their migration, from the beginning of budding to the end of flowering. At this time, spraying is carried out at least 2 times with 10% karbofos (75 g per 10 l of water), colloidal sulfur (50-100 g per 10 l of water), if the air temperature is above 20o. Can be sprayed with infusions of walnut peel, tobacco, dandelion, garlic.
Gooseberry shoot aphid
Damages black and white currants. Eggs overwinter at the base of the buds. In the spring, during the period of swelling of the buds, larvae hatch from the eggs, which crawl to the top of the bud and begin to feed on the leaves that have not yet blossomed. At the beginning of shoot growth, the larvae feed on young shoots, leaf stalks and on the leaves themselves. In the spring, aphids give 3-4 generations. Affected shoots are bent and grow poorly or stop growing altogether.
Instead of a normal shoot, a lump of twisted leaves with aphid colonies is formed. At an early stage of damage, the presence of aphids can be detected by the presence of ants on the shoots, which feed on the excrement of the pest. In summer, aphids migrate to weeds, and in autumn they return to currants and lay eggs.
Control measures. When the first leaves appear, the bushes are sprayed with infusion of tobacco, garlic, orange peels, and nutshells. The treatments are repeated after 10 days. The curly tops of the shoots with aphid colonies are cut and burned.
Damages currant berries wherever this crop grows. Pupae overwinter in a cobweb cocoon in the surface layer of soil, at a depth of 3-6 cm, under currant bushes. Most of them are located within a radius of 30-35 cm from the base of the bush. In the spring, before flowering, pupae move closer to the soil surface, turn into butterflies, which fly out and begin to lay eggs at the beginning of flowering. The female lays eggs first in buds, then in currant flowers and later on young ovaries and leaves. A few days later, caterpillars hatch from the eggs, take root in young ovaries, eating up seeds and partially pulp within a month. Damaged berries are entangled in cobwebs, color ahead of time, rot, dry out and remain hanging on the branch until the end of the harvest. The feeding caterpillar descends along the cobweb to the base of the bush, penetrates into the soil, pupates and remains in the form of a pupa until the spring of next year. The moth gives only one generation per season.
Control measures. High agricultural technology. In the fall, digging the soil under the bushes. Mulching the soil under the bushes with peat, humus, earth (with a layer of 6-8 cm high). After flowering, you can rake the mulch. During the formation and growth of the ovary, collect the berries braided with cobwebs together with the caterpillars and destroy.
Blackcurrant berry sawfly
Mainly damages black currants. Caterpillars overwinter in cocoons in the soil under bushes. During the period of mass flowering, adults fly out. Females lay eggs one at a time at the bases of the largest ovaries. The hatched caterpillars feed on seeds inside the ovaries, filling the berries with excrement. Damaged berries have a ribbed shape and turn black ahead of time. The caterpillar eats for 25-30 days. Before harvesting, it gnaws a round hole at the base of the berry, leaves it and goes into the soil. The berry falls off. The pest gives one generation per season.
Control measures are the same as for gooseberry moth.
Common spider mite
An omnivorous sucking pest. It damages not only cultivated plants, but also weeds, often accumulates on them. Particularly damaging to black currants.
Females overwinter in groups, mainly under fallen leaves, in a funnel formed by bush branches, under lumps of soil and under fallen leaves. Ticks can withstand very low temperatures - up to -34o, and since this temperature does not happen under the cover of snow, the females survive completely. In the last decade of April, on warm days, ticks move to currant branches and weeds.
They live, feed and reproduce on the underside of predominantly mature leaves, and only with a large accumulation of them do they also damage young leaves.
A spider mite can be detected by the presence of a cobweb on the underside of the leaf; on its upper side, light dots form in places of damage. With severe damage, the leaves acquire a chlorotic appearance, partially lighten, then turn brown, dry and fall off. Hot, dry weather contributes to the active reproduction of the pest. At the same time, the leaves fall off very early, by mid-July the bushes are bare, the axillary buds start to grow, which leads to freezing of the shoots and the loss of the next year's harvest.
Control measures. Requires high agricultural technology, the destruction of weeds. Autumn digging of soil under the bushes with the incorporation of fallen leaves. Collecting leaves in the fall after they have fallen and picking them especially carefully from the funnel at the base of the bush. Mulching the soil under the bushes within a radius of at least 50 cm with peat, humus or just soil with a layer of 6-8 cm. The mulching is carried out only after the end of flowering.
Leaf gall aphid (red gall)
It mainly damages red and white currants, less often black currants. <