Rules for laying paving slabs on a concrete base

When it comes time to pave paths, paving slabs are most often used in suburban areas. It is much more aesthetically pleasing than concrete or asphalt, and is not inferior in strength to them. The easiest way is to hire masters who know the styling technology, but if there is no way to pay about $ 10. per square, then you can retrain on vacation in a pavement and put it with your own hands. The main thing is to follow the technology, which is not so difficult, find the necessary tools and decide on the pillow on which you will put the finishing material. It can be created from sand-cement mixture, gravel and concrete. Consider in which cases paving slabs are laid on a concrete base and what nuances should be taken into account during installation and operation.

The concrete base is a poured and worn out flat area on which paving slabs will be laid. This method provides a much greater strength of the coating than a sand-cement pad, so it is used in places where heavy equipment or frequent traffic congestion will put pressure on the tile. In addition, it is much easier to level all the tiles under the same level if the bottom is not a mobile mixture, but a solid base. It will not shrink during the hardening process, there will be no failures and other problems associated with poor-quality ramming. Therefore, the owners who have no construction experience, but decided to make the paths on their own, in this way of laying, will simplify the leveling of the coating in one plane.

A concrete base for paving stones provides increased strength to the site, but it is more difficult to create it than to lay tiles on a sand and gravel mixture

And yet, laying paving slabs on concrete is rarely used, because this technology has its own nuances associated with the removal of moisture from the tile surface. With the usual sand-cement method, the sediments go through the hygroscopic base into the ground and do not cause any harm to the coating. If concrete is poured, then the water that seeps under the paving stones cannot go deeper, since the monolithic base simply will not let it through. As a result, it gets stuck between the base and the tile, in the tile joints, and as soon as the frosts hit, it will begin to expand, pushing the coating up. As a result, the paving stones may swell in some places, split along the edges, etc.

Therefore, when pouring a concrete base, special attention is paid to drainage: they create rulers, point moisture receivers, lay paving stones with a slope in a certain direction, etc.

If everything is organized correctly, then the created paths will be much more durable than on a sand-cement pad. You will be able to lay out the most complex fantasy patterns with perfect horizontal surface clarity.

Site preparation for construction work

The first step is to lay out the site, which will be paved: they drive in pegs and put up the so-called red marks. With this term, builders denote a tightly stretched thread that outlines the boundaries of the future height of your site. They take a regular twine, tie it to the pegs at the height where the tile will end. Do not forget to slope the line at 5 degrees to the place of future water intakes.

Even when laying narrow paths, the red marks are still exposed to get a smooth edge, perfect horizontal and the right angle of inclination for water drainage

Next, check how many centimeters of free space from the thread to the ground. If less than thirty, they remove all unnecessary things with a shovel and take them away in a wheelbarrow, so as not to interfere. Fertile soil can be poured directly into the garden or in places where flower beds are planned.

The edge of the finished earthen trough should be immediately reinforced with curbs. Some masters put the curbs after pouring the concrete, but in this case, you will have to protect the edge of the site from the soil crumbling, i.e. put the formwork. Therefore, for inexperienced bridge builders, the first option is preferable.

If you immediately install the curbs, you will not have to waste time creating the formwork, and then dismantling it, and the concrete will flood the site without cracks

If a curb with a height of 50 cm is used, then:

  • dig a trench another 30 cm deep;
  • fall asleep with a layer of rubble (about 10 cm);
  • put cement mortar (at least 1.5 cm);
  • a border is placed on it so that the upper edge after laying is 2-3 cm lower than the edge of the paving stone. This is necessary so that the curb does not hold water on the site, but helps to drain it.

With a lower curb height, the trench depth is correspondingly reduced.

The height of the curb should be slightly lower than the surface of the paving stones to ensure that precipitation quickly flows from the site and does not allow moisture to stagnate

Concrete pouring technological process

A day after the curb has become tired, concrete can be poured. If you are creating a platform on which equipment will ride, especially large-sized ones, the concrete base must be reinforced. For this, reinforcement (no more than a dozen thick) is suitable, which is knitted with a cell size of 15-20 cm.If the paths are exclusively pedestrian, then there is no need to reinforce.

It is advisable to pour concrete on sand, which will be an additional drainage for percolating moisture and will allow it to quickly go into the ground

So that moisture that has got through the paving slabs onto the concrete can seep further, and not stand inside, it is necessary to create special drainage holes. To do this, use an asbestos pipe, cutting it into pieces, 15-20 cm high (the height should coincide with the height of the concrete layer, which you will then fill in). Pieces of asbestos are laid out throughout the territory with the calculation of one per square meter. After pouring the concrete, they are not removed. You can also create holes from planks in the form of squares, but after the concrete has set, the tree will have to be removed.

Now we prepare ordinary concrete using cement grade 150-200. Fill it with a layer of 15 cm - if there is no reinforcement, 20 cm - if the reinforcement is laid. If a large area is poured, then every three meters it is necessary to create a so-called expansion joint. It is needed to prevent cracking of the base in winter. The seam is easiest to make by pressing the boards into the concrete with an edge, half a centimeter thick. After adhering, they are removed, and the voids are filled with an elastic filler. The top of the seam is coated with concrete to level with the rest of the surface.

A day later, remove the wooden formwork from the drainage holes and fill them flush with the edge of the concrete with fine gravel.

Creation of a sand-cement pad

The order of work here is as follows:

  1. We sift the sand, mix with cement 6: 1 (the easiest way is in a concrete mixer);
  2. We fill up the site with a layer of up to 10 cm (taking into account the thickness of the paving stones), i.e. the thickness of the pillow + the thickness of the tile should protrude about 2 cm beyond the red mark (shrink cover).
  3. We ram with a vibrating plate or treadmill (a log on which a wide board is nailed from below, and a handle bar is stuffed on top).
  4. We check the tension of the red marks so that the slope goes. By the way, remember that it is better to put the pegs more often, because even a very tight thread gives a sagging of 1 mm per meter.
  5. We lay out beacons on the site (pipes with a diameter of 20 mm). They must be pressed tightly against the pillow so that there is a distance from the lace to the lighthouse equal to the thickness of your tile + 1 cm per seal. The distance between the beacons is slightly less than the length of your rule.
  6. Then we take the rule and tighten, focusing on the lighthouses, the excess sand-cement cushion to get a perfectly flat surface.
  7. We take out the first beacons, where you will start laying tiles (you cannot step on the pillow!), Fill the grooves with the same mixture and start laying the tiles on the concrete base.

This is how it all looks:

If the site is created large, then it is easier to knead sand and cement in a concrete mixer, and then bring the ready-made mixture on a wheelbarrow

On narrow paths, the rule may be a flat board in which the edges are cut off, and the edges of the installed curb as beacons

When laying paving stones, the extreme tiles will have to be adjusted, so find a grinder in advance and install a diamond wheel to make perfectly even cuts

Styling tricks: how to do without a vibrating plate?

If you have completed all the previous steps conscientiously, then it will be easy to lay the paving stones. The tiles are laid not end-to-end, but with seams of about 5 mm. They will not allow the tiles to crack when the coating is walking from temperature extremes and moisture.

Some owners start laying tiles from the most visible side of the site, so that all cuts and fits are obtained in places that are least noticeable to the eyes.

Start laying from the curb. Usually they move along the marks from top to bottom, in the direction where the water will flow.

Try to leave even seams between the tiles, at least 5 mm, so that the coating looks symmetrical, and in winter, when the tiles expand, they do not squeeze one another out.

Level the surface of each tile by tapping with a mallet (rubber mallet) and checking the horizontal level. In the future, you need to press down the entire surface with a vibrating plate so that the tiles sit exactly along the stretched threads, but if it is not there, then immediately when laying they use a wide cut of the board. It is laid flat on several tiles and nailed with a mallet to the desired height.

Tile joints can be filled with the same mixture from which you created the pillow, or with fine sand. The first option creates a monolithic coating that allows moisture to pass through less. In addition, grass and moss grow less often in the seams. But if you drive into such a tile in winter with heavy transport, then both the seams and the edges of the tile can crack, since there are no thermal seams. Any material, including paving stones, expands at low temperatures. And there is no gap for this expansion. There is a strong pressure in the seams, and if something heavy passes through the coating at this time, the concrete may not withstand the load.

Seams covered with sand perfectly preserve the integrity of the coating, but through them precipitation instantly falls under the tile. So water diversion must be performed at the highest level.

First, sand or a sand-gravel mixture is scattered over the entire site, and then carefully sweep it into the seams between the tiles.

To fill the seams with a mixture or sand, use a regular home broom. The composition is scattered over the surface of the coating and carefully swept into the seams, and the excess is removed.

The site is ready. It is advisable not to walk on it for three days, so that the pillow nourishes moisture from the ground and hardens. It is better to put a board or plywood in order not to move the edges of the tiles under the pressure of the body.

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Features of laying paving slabs on a concrete base: a step-by-step guide

Traditionally, paving slabs (paving stones) are laid on a crushed stone-sand base, arranged directly on the ground. But this option is not always optimal. For example, when paving pedestrian areas, parking lots, playgrounds, it is very important that the foundation is as strong as possible. In this case, experts recommend laying paving slabs on concrete, which will provide a high level of wear on the coating.

It is important to understand that paving slabs are not laid on a concrete base exactly as on a crushed stone-sand cushion. There are some subtle nuances that need to be followed. Otherwise, all the advantages of the coating will be nullified.

The concrete base will ensure long-term operation of the paving slabs .

The main advantage of a concrete base is stability. This is its difference from the crushed stone-sand cushion and soil, which, under the influence of atmospheric conditions, can significantly sink, "pulling" the paving stones. This will not happen with a concrete base. Tiles laid on concrete will not sag even under significant mechanical stress, for example, in car parks.

The strength of the concrete base (if laid correctly) will not allow the tiles to "slide out" and fall out of their place. And this is the guarantee of a durable paving service in places of intensive traffic.

Description of the technology of laying paving slabs: video and recommendations

There are many options for laying paving slabs over a concrete base. The blind area does not put forward special requirements regarding the choice of finishes, therefore the quality and your personal taste are the determining factors. It is even possible to lay paving slabs on an old concrete base.

The process of forming a blind area begins with a marking. To complete this stage of construction, you will need a marking cord and a set of wooden pegs. They are placed around the house in accordance with measurements, after which a cord is pulled through each of them. The quality of the blind area depends on how carefully and accurately the markings are made.

Laying paving slabs on a sand-concrete mixture

Note! When recreating the pattern of laying paving slabs on the blind area from a photo, do not forget about the slope. Most often, this indicator fluctuates between 1-3 ° / m. There are also exceptions to the rules when the slope angle is 5 ° / m.

After the marking is completed, the upper soil layer is excavated in the area of ​​construction work. Most of the types of paving slabs shown in the photo involve the installation of a 40 cm wide coating.Taking into account this indicator, the depth of the excavation of the upper soil layer is determined. Do not forget that the concrete blind area should rise above ground level.

To this data is also added the requirements of the slope, which is formed for the device of the drainage system.

Installation of a curb is an important part of laying paving slabs on a mortar

Even if you are working with one of the simplest options for laying brick paving slabs, the photo as a basis does not provide a high-quality result. It is very important to comply with all the requirements of the technology, and not only regarding the paving of sidewalks, but also the formation of the blind area.

The blind area is quite heavy. At this stage, experts recommend installing curbs, which will simplify the work. The fact is that any pattern for laying paving slabs is repelled by the curb, which limits it. At this stage, it will perform another function - the frame.

If you refuse to install the curb, its installation will still have to be done later, and work on the blind area will be complicated by the need to install the formwork structure.

The pit under the curb should go deeper than the level of the masonry. Most often, its bottom drops 30 cm from the lower border of the curb.

The path in front of the house is covered with paving stones of different sizes

Helpful advice! Be sure to include water outflow in these calculations. After all, the curb should not interfere with the escape of water, which can violate the integrity of the building foundation.

After that, a 15 cm thick crushed stone pillow is formed at the bottom of the pit, the material should be carefully tamped. Above, a 2 cm thick concrete solution is poured and the curb is installed. It will take a day to fully set and harden. After making sure that the fill is completely dry, you can take on the next array of work.

Formation of the basis for laying paving slabs: video tutorials and recommendations

After installing the curb, the site is leveled and carefully compacted taking into account the required slope of the surface.It is recommended to lay several layers of geotextile at the bottom. This kind of material will inhibit the growth of plants. Although vegetation is unable to penetrate the concrete base, geotextiles will provide additional protection.

Diagram of the base device for paving slabs or paving stones

In some cases, bituminous material is used as a bottom lining. The laying of this material is carried out in order to increase the waterproofing properties of the coating.

Concrete base formation scheme:

  1. The first layer in turn is formed from crushed stone. If curbs were installed, this step can be omitted.
  2. If serious loads on the coating are expected, the blind area should be equipped with a reinforcing layer. It can be made from reinforcing rods.
  3. For a monolithic structure, a height of 10 cm is sufficient for a footpath. The base for a parking lot must have a height of at least 20 cm.

Helpful advice! To obtain a quality result, use concrete with the M200 marking. It is optimal in terms of quality and cost.

It is very simple to install paving slabs on a concrete base using the video. Using the recommendations and visual materials, this process can be done with your own hands.

Paving slabs: how to put a topcoat on the mortar

If we compare the samples of laying paving slabs in the photo, this technology is in many ways similar to the technique of working with tiles. A distinctive feature here is the solution, which has a slightly different composition and consistency.

In the photo of paving slabs, the patterns of laying the covering elements are very diverse. The specificity of the design does not affect the way the sidewalks are installed, as well as the general technology. There are two methods for laying tiles: sand-cement mixture and sand-cement mortar.

In the case of a sand-cement mixture, a thicker mortar consistency is obtained than that used in the construction of the base. The mixture does not tolerate the presence of small stones, so the sand should be sieved first. This will simplify the work of self-paving paving. The required thickness of the applied layer is 2-3 cm, after which the mixture is leveled with a trowel.

There are two ways of laying tiles: using a sand-cement mixture and a sand-cement mortar

When using the dry method, there is a possibility of shrinkage of paving slabs. On which solution the specialists put the coating, in this case it no longer matters much, since this will require special knowledge. The prices for the purchase of a specialized mixture are quite high, so it is better not to risk it and give preference to a cement-sand mixture.

In the second case, a cement-sand mortar can be used in a ratio of 3: 1, respectively. After the solution is prepared, it must be laid out on the base, leveled and tamped.

Helpful advice! Use a wooden or rubber mallet to pave the paving stone. She is unable to damage the tiles.

Use to familiarize yourself with the technology of laying paving slabs on mortar, the video below.

After all the elements of the coating are laid out, the surface is abundantly wetted with water. Over the course of a certain period, the tile dries out, then the seams between the sidewalk elements are filled. To flush out residual cement and dirt, the coating will need to be rinsed again with water.

Laying options for paving slabs "Old Town": photos and features

Judging by the numerous photos of the Old Town paving slabs laying, this type of coating is the most widespread in comparison with others. Such popularity is due to the large list of advantages that this material carries.

Tile "Old Town" allows you to form interesting patterns and combinations of coating elements. One package of this material can contain parts in four different sizes. Sometimes there is a choice of three size combinations in a pack (without the smallest option).

The complete set includes:

  • large tiles
  • square tiles

There are many interesting schemes of paving tiles "Old Town", which will allow you to create a unique design of the site

  • an element that is 1/2 of the size of a large tile
  • an element that is 1/3 of a large tile or 1/2 of a square.

Due to such a dimensional variety, there are enough options for laying the Old Town paving slabs. Schemes can be complicated by adding a few colors.

On the other hand, having such a large size range can cause chaos and disorder. If you do not adhere to a certain pattern in your work, you can get a not very beautiful coating.

Helpful advice! To some extent, a little randomness can even be welcomed. The main thing is to avoid the formation of spots consisting of clusters of tile elements in the same size or the same color.

If you want to simplify your work as much as possible, it is enough to limit yourself to a pattern of laying paving slabs of two colors, which is attractive in its own way.

An example of a combination of tiles of different types and colors

Features and photos of laying paving slabs "Brick", "Rhombus" and other forms

At first, it may seem that drawing up schemes from paving slabs is a rather difficult task. In fact, after watching the video, laying paving slabs ceases to seem difficult. Using the recommendations regarding the selection of schemes, you can easily navigate the choice.

For example, if you have chosen the "Brick" shape for your sidewalk, you should pay attention to the following schemes:

  • laying of a linear type, which can be complicated by a shift or even do without it
  • modular styling
  • paving in a spiral.

Thanks to the rounded edges, this tile perfectly shows its decorative effect in all of the above patterns.

Laying schemes for tiles "Brick" are one of the simplest

In the photo of the "Rhombus" paving slabs, the options for laying the pavement look almost like a 3D image. The result of this paving is a stunning optical illusion that creates the impression of a three-dimensional effect on the surface of the sidewalk.

This effect is explained on the photo of paving slabs "Rhombus" by laying, based on the use of elements with different external characteristics:

  • form
  • surface texture
  • colors.

In total, the modern assortment includes more than 40 varieties of tile products with similar geometric data.

Laying paving stones on a concrete base in urban areas

Polymer sandy tiles are especially popular. The material is able to offer excellent technical characteristics and is suitable for those consumers who want to speed up installation. Products are created on the basis of sand, polymers and dyes and can include elements of completely different configurations.

The laying of polymer sand paving slabs shown in the video clearly reflects how much the process of paving is simplified and accelerated in this case.

Most of modern tile coverings perfectly tolerate the influence of the sun and low temperatures, are distinguished by their durability and increased strength, as well as other equally advantageous performance characteristics. Consumers only have to choose the design and color in which the coating will be made.

Masonry and lining technique

Paving slabs can be laid on a concrete base using the same technology as on a bed of sand and gravel. It is allowed to pour a mixture under each element and additionally seat it with a mallet in order to level the difference in the thickness of the tile and the unevenness of its shrinkage.

And yet, the presence of a concrete base is an excellent reason to prepare a flat, tamped area, and then lay tiles on it without additional impact. This method is especially recommended when there is a chamfer or a convex front surface, as well as when working with tiles of high decorative qualities.

When the tile is laid in a sufficiently large area, a mixture of dry washed fine sand with cement in a ratio of 1: 4 is poured over it, and all the seams are thoroughly swept with the resulting composition. In this case, it is better to use not an ordinary broom, but brushes with a long synthetic bristle: you need to achieve the most dense and complete filling of all cracks, otherwise the germination of seeds brought by the wind cannot be ruled out in them. After that, rinsing the tiles with water or waiting for rain is solely a matter of your choice.

Watch the video: Πως θα ελέγξω την αναρτηση μου. Θορυβος σε λακουβες

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