The art of growing bonsai


Surely in flower shops or among the exhibits of specialized exhibitions, you have repeatedly admired the exquisite small trees. They are called bonsai. These plants are not only a pretty sight to the eye, but also a special art, and often the spiritual philosophy of those who grow them.

What is the origin of this art and what types of bonsai are popular in our time?

"Bonsai" literally translates from Chinese as "potted plant." The art of growing mini trees comes from China, but many neighboring peoples adopted it and made it traditional in their countries (Japan, Vietnam ...). Today, Japanese bonsai is classic.

As a basis for growing miniature beauties, you can take any tree: figs, maple, ficus and azalea are suitable.

How is the dwarf form achieved in the plants we are accustomed to? Using systematic pruning, poor soil composition, watering restrictions and other tricks.

Directions and styles of bonsai

Modern bonsai art is distinguished by many directions. Here are the main ones:

Feature formal straight tekkan style is that the top of the tree is located on the same vertical as the root - just as straight.

Slight curvatures of the trunk or branches are inherent informal straight style myogi... The top will always be at the level where the root is hidden.

Twin barrel style - that's what they call juices - differs from the others in two trunks. They are the same or different in height and form a single crown.

Have oblique shakan style the tree grows at an angle to the plane, not straight.

Kengai style interesting by the cascading arrangement of the plant, similar to a waterfall.

IN khan-kengae adhere to a semi-cascade formation. When the upward stretching crown is at the level of the ground in the pot.

Very original netsunari. In this style, each branch grows as a separate independent tree.

For literals the formation of a straight trunk with a minimum number of branches is characteristic.

Style yoshi oe involves growing several trees in one container.

"Root on stone" - this is also the name of the direction sekijouju... Here the plant is located on a stone, braiding it with its roots.

Have hokidachi style the trees have spreading branches and form a spherical crown.

Ikadabuki is a multi-barreled style. Several plants grow here from one root.

IN isizuki Deveva's roots are in the crevices of the stone on which it grows. This style is called “growing on stone”.


How to Grow Bonsai - The Art of Bonsai

There are many people who are fond of floriculture. For florists, it doesn't matter where to grow their favorite flowers. That is, they can do this both on their personal plot and in apartments. When you go to the house of flower lovers, everything simply smells, and a person, in gratitude for this, devotes all his free time to caring for these beautiful plants.

But besides flowers, dwarf trees can also be grown in the house. This activity is called "Bonsai". That is, this is a technique for growing dwarf trees.


Bonsai art: idealized harmony of nature

The history of the art of bonsai, this unique field of plant growing, goes back many centuries. One of the earliest mentions of bonsai is found in the writing of the Kamakura period (1192-1333), which depicts naturally-shaped dwarf trees. True, in those days, the hieroglyphs denoting the word "bonsai" were pronounced as "hatiue", and the very principles and methods of that ancient art were very different from modern concepts. The art of hatiue involved the transplanting of low-growing plants from natural habitats into flower dishes to decorate gardens and dwellings with them. The followers of "hatiue" did not artificially create compositions of a certain predetermined form and symbolism.

Literally bonsai (Japanese) translates as "grown in a tray or platter" or "a plant in a tray or platter." The modern meaning of the concept of bonsai is the art of growing an exact copy of a real tree (or other plant) in miniature.

The word bonsai is automatically associated with Japan, although the origins of this amazing art go back to the history of another country - China. The Japanese term "bonsai" comes from the name of the Chinese art "pen-tsai", which originated in 231 BC. It is believed that the Japanese were introduced to the art of growing miniature plants by wandering Buddhist monks, for whom "pen-tsai" was an object of religious significance, it was also called the "green path to Heaven." This art quickly spread throughout Japan, and it was the Japanese who began to develop a system of canons, including the requirements for the appearance of the plant itself and for its combination with accessories, as well as the rules of exposure. They created their own styles and forms, which are the basis of modern bonsai: "upright trunk", "wriggling trunk", "bent trunk", "calligraphic tree", "cascade", "stump", "bamboo and stones", "broom" , "Tree on a rock" and many others.

Initially, bonsai in Japan was the privilege of samurai, but by the end of the 19th century it became a free art that anyone can practice.

Modern bonsai is a living example of natural beauty, created by the harmonious unity of three main elements: plant, soil and container.


Secrets of growing bonsai at home

The success of the hobby of growing a Japanese tree at home lies in the initial shaping of the seedling. When the trunk of the plant reaches a height of 4-7 cm, a squat trunk with a beautiful root system begins to form.

To work, you will need the following tools:

  • Well sharpened knife or pruning shears can be used
  • soil for transplanting seedlings
  • pots (bonsai)
  • a solution that stimulates root formation in plants (root and other analogues).

All the tools you need are inexpensive.

Seedlings are removed from the ground, and most of the root is cut off and the seedling is placed in a prepared solution with a root formation stimulator for several hours. After that, the plant is planted back into the pot and covered with a transparent glass flask or bag, as a last resort. After such a procedure, they should take root within a month or two. Then the seedlings are repeatedly transplanted, continuing to form the root system, gradually exposing it, but there is no need to rush, otherwise the plant may die. When the seedling acquires a beautiful raised root system and gets stronger, it can be planted on stones. The most "popular" compositions are created in this very design, especially Dutch flower growers who sell ficuses formed in this way under the guise of simple bonsai.

To form the crown of a plant, you should follow simple rules:

  • Prune opposite branches.
  • Remove completely crossed branches.
  • Weak and thin branches must be pruned mercilessly.

Be sure to cover the places of cuts on the branches with garden varnish or other special means. This will protect the tree trunk from fungi, bacteria and various pests.

Growing bonsai is a fun and exciting hobby for plant and wildlife lovers. And this hobby can easily turn into a small home business. In order to start growing home bonsai, it is enough to have no more than 1-1.5 thousand rubles, but the cost of adult plants that you are able to grow can reach 10 thousand rubles. for one plant.

To the advantages of such a hobby, which can be easily implemented at home, it is worth adding that the very process of growing miniature bonsai trees brings extraordinary moral satisfaction. This hobby is suitable for people who are creative, who know how and who love to create beautiful things with their own hands.


Bonsai from seed

If you want to have a new and unusual plant, then you can breed bonsai. The journey from the seeds to the finished tree is long and arduous, but the result will be a real pleasure.

Any specimen can be grown by this method, but you should be aware of the breeds that are most amenable to this process.

Better to use trees that grow in your area, such as spruce or pine. It can also be other conifers - fir, cypress, cedar.

Tropical species that are suitable for "miniaturization" are boxwood, myrtle, acacia. An affordable houseplant that is fairly easy to turn into bonsai is the ficus plant.

Among broadleaf species, miniature analogs of growing giants can be: bushy hornbeams, maples, birches, spreading elms, Japanese beeches and pomegranate trees.

To create a miniature, you can purchase an adult tree, or cultivate with seeds. How to grow a bonsai tree is up to you, in any case, the creation of a dwarf miniature will take about five years.


Bonsai history.

Bonsai Is a whole culture of growing plants, miniature trees, in a shallow vessel or dish. Bansai art has a long history. India is considered his homeland. Together with Buddhism in the 6th century, thanks to wandering monks, it came to Japan, where it found its further development.

‘Seeing the great through the small” is the basic principle that bonsai masters have been using for over a thousand years, skillfully reproducing the infinite variety of nature in a small space. Depending on the size of the trunk, roots and branches, bonsai are classified into fifteen styles. The lines of bonsai-style plants are simple, laconic, natural, they are the subject of contemplation and meditation.

A person who grows "bonsai" must be both an artist and a good gardener in order to first mentally create the desired image, and then embody it in a living plant. There are certain rules for the formation of a bonsai tree, developed by Japanese craftsmen. True, this work is extremely painstaking and takes a lot of time. It takes up to fifteen years to grow one "bonsai". The oriental art of bonsai came to the West and conquered it. Despite the canonization of styles established by the Japanese, every bonsaist in any country brings something of his own to this art. They use plants of the local flora, grow large trees, giving them a "bonsai" shape and decorating their backyards.


How to grow bonsai

Plant the seedling in a pot and let it take root for a year. Take it out the next spring, cut off the thick roots, and pin on any vigorous shoots. Repeat this operation for the second year. In the third year, trim the roots by about a third to fit the plant into a store-bought bonsai tray, and continually pinch off unwanted shoots. Then wrap the plastic-coated wire around the branches, giving them a curved shape. Keep in mind that deciduous trees such as maples are most flexible in the spring, while evergreens such as pine and juniper are best planted in the fall.

To protect the bonsai, place it in an outdoor area protected from the winds. If frost is predicted, wrap it in bubble wrap.

Indoor bonsai are tropical species that are best bought ready-made in specialty stores and placed out of direct sunlight.

Look for a plant with evenly branched roots and a sophisticated shape. In warm weather, open windows to let the tree breathe fresh air.

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More about flowers and ornamental plants:
How to break a flower garden, plants for a flower garden
How to plant plants in a hanging basket
Growing flowers and plants in pots and containers

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