Fruit and berry plants
Raspberries are a picky berry, they do not require much attention to themselves. But in order to get a rich harvest of juicy, tasty and fragrant berries, you need to observe the agricultural technology of its cultivation, destroy pests, fight diseases, and be sure to carry out spring, summer and autumn preventive measures.
Here are the work that a gardener will need to do in a raspberry tree in the spring:
You can start cleaning the raspberry bushes when all the snow has melted and the air warms up enough. Examine the bushes, and if you find frostbitten and dead shoots, remove them: dead shoots are cut to the very root, and frostbitten areas are cut to healthy tissue. During sanitary pruning, damaged, weak, sick, pest-affected and thickening shoots are also removed, preventing the sun's rays from penetrating deep into the crown.
Pruning raspberries in spring - detailed instructions
In the photo: Pruning raspberries
Then you should collect the scraps, scoop out all last year's leaves from the site and be sure to burn them, since they may contain pathogens of bacterial and fungal diseases and larvae of harmful insects.
Garter shoots are an important step in caring for a raspberry tree. Basically, those plants are tied up that, during the fruiting period, strongly sag under the weight of the berries and those that do not receive enough sunlight. In order to tie the raspberries correctly, you need to drive in the columns at the beginning, at the end and in the middle of each row and stretch three rows of wire from column to column - lower, middle and upper. Each shoot must be fixed on the wires in an upright position.
In spring, the frequency of watering raspberries depends on the weather. If the winter was snowy, the soil will be saturated with moisture until mid-May, and then it usually starts rains and thunderstorms, so you often don't have to water the raspberries. Raspberry requires regular moisture only during flowering and ovary formation. After watering in the raspberry tree, you can mulch the soil with some kind of organic matter so that the moisture does not evaporate quickly.
Planting and caring for raspberries - practical instructions
In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, it is imperative to add mineral fertilizing to the raspberry soil. Nitrogen fertilization promotes intensive growth of leaves and new shoots. To fertilize raspberries at this time of the year, urea (urea), ammonium nitrate or Nitroammofosk are usually used, which contains three elements at once in equal proportions - phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen. Fertilizers are applied in the form of granules or solution. The granules are scattered evenly around the raspberry bushes and, by loosening, they are embedded in the soil.
In the photo: Fertilizers for raspberries
The rate of mineral fertilizers per 1 m² of raspberries:
It is better to apply fertilizers in liquid form: the required amount of granules is dissolved in 10 liters of water and poured under the bushes, spending a bucket of solution per 1 m² of plot. After fertilizing, it is advisable to water the soil with water so that the fertilizers reach the raspberry roots faster.
You will learn how to properly water and feed raspberries from the following video:
Organics are natural fertilizers that allow you to grow raspberries without chemicals. They also saturate the soil with phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen, but at the same time they also improve its composition and increase fertility. In the spring, it is advisable to mulch the soil in the raspberry grove with a thick layer of organic fertilizer, which is used as:
Photo: Mulching raspberry bushes
First, the soil must be well loosened, watered, and only then the mulch should be spread over its surface. Thanks to mulching, the moisture under the bushes is retained much longer, and the raspberry roots receive nutrients.
With the onset of the first warm days, it is recommended to spray the raspberry from pests and diseases with a three percent solution of Bordeaux liquid. This must be done before bud break. Later, during the growth of leaves and the formation of buds, raspberries can be attacked by such pests:
The most dangerous diseases for raspberries are anthracnose and gray rot. For gray rot, a three percent solution of Bordeaux liquid is used, and for anthracnose, raspberries are sprayed with two percent solutions of Nitrafen.
These pests and diseases can destroy most of the raspberry crop, but the problem can be avoided if the bushes and soil are treated with special preparations in a timely manner for preventive purposes.
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Raspberries are one of the most useful and favorite berries for gardeners, which can be found in almost any summer cottage. To get a large harvest from the plantation, you should start caring for raspberries in early spring.
Particular attention should be paid during this period to fertilizing so that the crop receives a sufficient amount of nutrients after a long winter period.
The main pests of raspberries are:
Stem gall midge
The presence of swelling on the stems and shoots of raspberries indicates that the plant is affected by stem gall midge. Such shoots are cut and burned.
For prevention in early spring, the soil is loosened to a depth of 5-10 centimeters and sprayed with karbofos or Fufanon.
At the time of the appearance of the buds, re-treatment with Fufanon or Actellik is performed.
Aphids feed on plant sap and accumulate on the lower part of the foliage. To destroy the pest during the budding period, karbofos or Actellic is used.
For the prevention of stem flies, mulching of the soil around the bushes is used. Mulch makes it difficult for insects to get out of the ground. The first treatment is carried out after the snow melts; karbofos is used. In early May (before flowering), treatment is performed with Fitoverm, Aktellik or Agravertin.
Raspberry gum affects raspberry stems. The larvae feed on the tissue of the stems and cause tissue cracking and swelling. The bulges reach 10 centimeters in length. Diseased plants are removed from the site. For the prevention of healthy bushes, treatment with karbofos is performed.
When raspberry bushes are damaged by a weevil, the plants are treated with karbofos, metaphos or Aktellik. Processing is carried out one week before flowering.
To combat the kidney moth in early spring (before the buds swell), the bushes are treated with Bordeaux liquid, Confidor, Iskra, Decis. When leaves appear, a 10% solution of karbofos is used.
The raspberry beetle damages the leaves, buds and berries of the plant. Berries become smaller and spoil quickly.
To protect against the raspberry beetle, the bushes and the ground around (immediately after the snow melts, pruning and tying the bushes) are sprayed with a 10% solution of karbofos, Nitrafen, Decis, Konfidor, Iskra and covered with mulch.
When a raspberry glass appears, the damaged stems are pruned and burned, the caterpillars damage the stems, roots and lead to the weakening and death of the bushes.
Spider mites can be identified by white punctures on the surface of raspberry leaves. With severe damage, the plants begin to wilt and die.
In the fight against spider mites, malofos, phosphamide, metaphos, colloidal sulfur, Cydial are used. Spraying is done in the evening.
Anthracnose (leaf rolling) occurs when there is a lack of boron or potassium in the soil. With a lack of potassium, the leaves are wrapped inward. You can correct the situation with ash. Boron deficiency can be compensated by adding boric acid solution.
From gray rot and anthracnose, raspberries are treated with Nitrafen solution in early spring... When the buds open, they are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid. Fitosporin can be used at any time.
When mottling, streaks, spotting on the leaves (viral diseases) appear, they must be removed immediately. Pruning old shoots, thinning and feeding plants helps to avoid these diseases.
To avoid verticillary wilting when planting, the roots must be dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 10 minutes... When leaf spot appears, Bordeaux liquid is used.
Chlorosis of raspberries
Pests (mites, aphids, nematodes) penetrate the stems through cuts, breaks. These insects are carriers of viral diseases (chlorosis, jaundice). The leaves turn yellow, the stems are depleted, the berries become smaller and dry quickly.
At the first signs of chlorosis, the plants need to be dug up and burned, healthy bushes and the soil around are treated with protective drugs.
Mycoplasma disease leads to the formation of a large number of infertile thin shoots with a length of 30-50 centimeters (about 200 pieces per bush). At the first manifestations of the disease, the bush is dug up and removed from the site.
Goatness of roots and root cancer leads to yellowing of foliage. When transplanting or planting bushes, you need to pay attention to the roots. If there is swelling, they are removed, and the cut sites are treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate.
When raspberry curl appears, the leaves become much smaller, become wrinkled, tough. The underside of the leaves turns brown. The berries become sour, deformed and dry. The plant dies within 3 years. Diseased bushes are immediately removed and sent to the fire.
After the soil has converged, it is recommended to remove the old mulch and prepare the soil under the bushes for the new season. Annual tillage consists of the following stages:
After the rows of raspberry bushes and the aisles, it is worth to be sure to mulch. To do this, use straw, peat, sawdust. It is also acceptable to use special synthetic materials for mulching. The layer of mulch should be of such a thickness that, after complete subsidence, it is at least 5 centimeters.
A properly mulched area can reduce the drying out of the soil by 3 - 4 times.
A good harvest of raspberries is not so much a gift from nature as the painstaking work of a gardener. Even very high yielding varieties can produce poor fruit if they are not properly taken care of or taken care of on time. Learn basic farming techniques to grow sweet, juicy raspberries.
The main care for raspberries in spring begins in March and comes down to the following procedures:
In early March, you should carefully scoop up the remains of leaves and debris at the base of the bushes. This waste must be incinerated as it may contain harmful insects and microorganisms. Then you should make a hot shower with raspberries to destroy harmful microorganisms.
For the procedure you need:
This procedure is not only harmless, but also very beneficial for raspberries. Hot water does not have time to burn the sleeping raspberry buds, as it cools down to 70 degrees (until it reaches the bushes). A hot shower is a great way to kill a nematode that sometimes defies even the most powerful chemicals.
On average, 1 watering can of hot water is enough to process 2–4 bushes. If the raspberry bushes are large (10-15 branches), then 5 liters of water are consumed per 2 bushes.
After a hot shower, as soon as a positive temperature is established, the topsoil dries up, the raspberry bushes are cut and shaped. Regardless of the method of planting raspberries, it is more practical to prune in 2 stages: in early spring and later, when a constant temperature is established above 5 degrees Celsius.
Dry shoots, markedly different in color from young ones, are cut off at the base with a sharp pruner
At the first stage, weak shoots are removed near the ground, which have fruited, crooked, thickening branches and stems with bulges at the base (gall midge larvae overwinter there). Thin the remaining stems, leaving 6–8 stems during bush formation, and up to 15–20 stems per linear meter of area with tape (trench) planting. Thickening will lead to a decrease in yield and shrinking of berries.
It is necessary to cut out completely frozen, broken, underdeveloped and pest-damaged stems and burn them.
The raspberry shoot, in which the stem gall midge overwintered, has a thickening
It is necessary to cut off with a sharp secateurs the damaged areas near the frozen stems to the upper living bud.In young healthy bushes up to 20 cm, the tops are cut off. This pinching will allow the lateral shoots to grow.
Scheme of spring pruning of raspberry bushes
When caring for raspberries after winter, gardeners should avoid digging up the soil between the rows so as not to damage the roots, the depth of which does not exceed 30 centimeters. Digging up row spacings is permissible only in autumn.
In spring, the soil in the raspberry tree is mulched, that is, it is covered with a thick (up to 15 cm) layer of mulch. As a mulching material, you can use:
The mulching process should be preceded by a procedure of deep (up to 10 centimeters) loosening and abundant watering.
Mulching prevents the depletion of the substrate, contributes to the long-term preservation of moisture under the bushes and the supply of the root system with a rich complex of nutrients. The mulching method is contraindicated only in relation to very wet soils: it is enough to loosen them and apply fertilizers.
The raspberry root system tends to grow, capturing large areas. To prevent this process, it is necessary to make a raspberry fence. To do this, it is enough to dig in a strip of galvanized iron or sheet metal around its entire perimeter (the width of the strip should be at least twenty centimeters). Thanks to this barrier, the raspberry tree will remain in place.
An equally important point is the correct garter of raspberry vines. This is especially true for varieties that bend under the weight of their own fruits. The procedure will help:
When bush formation of raspberries, a stake is driven in between 2 bushes and from each to a stake, half of the bush is tied (separately each stem). With this method, the garter uses step pruning. Each stem is cut to a different height - 10-15-20 cm.
The easiest, most economical and affordable way to tie a raspberry garter is col
The most popular type of support is trellis. How to carry out the garter correctly:
Pillars with a height of 2.2-2.3 meters are dug in with a step of 3.5-4.5 meters, a wire is stretched between them at a height of 0.75, 1 and 1.6 meters
Among the varieties that do not require a garter are:
Raspberries are very sensitive to moisture supply, but there is no strict irrigation schedule. They are carried out according to the condition of the raspberry tree and weather conditions. Especially frequent and sufficient watering is necessary for raspberries during flowering and ovary formation. With a lack of water, the berries are small, dry, bony. Watering is carried out along the furrows. The soil should be saturated with water up to 10-15 cm of the layer. At the end of watering, mulching is required.
After pruning, it is necessary to weed and loosen the soil, feed the plants and treat them from pests. Early spring is the best period for applying nitrogen fertilizers to the soil. They are brought in after the snow melts before loosening the soil. Nitrogen increases yields and causes the growth and development of powerful shoots, but they should not be applied in excess of the norm.
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied to freshly thawed and not yet loosened soil, barely free of snow
I scatter urea or ammonium nitrate on the ground up to 15 grams per 1 sq. m. (this is 1 matchbox). Together with nitrogen fertilizer, I introduce ash, which also deacidifies the soil.
To prevent viral and fungal diseases, before bud break, I treat the bushes and the soil surface under them with a 1% solution of copper oxychloride or use a 3% Bordeaux mixture.
During the budding period, I begin to fight pests: aphids, ticks, raspberry kidney moth. I process the bushes with Fufanon at the rate of 2 liters of solution for 10 bushes. I also use folk remedies. To protect plants from weevil larvae, I dissolve 5 tablespoons of mustard powder in 10 liters of water, leave for 10-12 hours and spray the bushes with this composition.
The norms of mineral fertilizers range from 60–80 g / sq. m
When caring for raspberries, it is important to prevent the soil from drying out, therefore, in the spring, the ground under the bushes is mulched with straw, peat or sawdust up to a layer of 20 cm. You can also use black spunbond for this. In addition to retaining moisture in the soil, such a simple operation allows:
Raspberry bushes are mulched with organic fertilizers: straw manure, humus or peat compost
In raspberries, fruiting occurs in the second year, and in the first - the shoots only grow. Young growth also needs to be cut for the correct formation of the bush, cut out excess shoots in order to provide the bush with normal air exchange, a sufficient amount of light and nutrition in the future.
With the bush method of planting raspberries, I cut off young shoots of the first year with pruning shears to a height of 40-50 cm, and leave 5-6 of the largest and healthiest last year's shoots in the bush. My pruner is always sharp, treated with a solution of potassium permanganate to prevent infection from entering the sections.
As for the remontant varieties, the berries on them are obtained on young shoots of the first year in the fall. If before winter it was not possible to cut the aboveground part at soil level and you want to get only one, but a large harvest, then in the spring, before the beginning of the growing season, all the stems must be removed. When the shoots grow 30–40 cm, normalization is carried out - only 5–6 of the most developed shoots are left per bush. Pinching, or pinching of green shoots, is not done in remontant varieties.
Yellow raspberries are a godsend for people with allergies to red fruits. The varieties of yellow raspberries are very diverse. But in the cultivation of yellow and red raspberries, there are no significant differences.
Yellow raspberry is an incredibly hardy bush, characterized by low whimsicality and increased endurance.
The fruits of black raspberries are medicinal, their anticarcinogenic effect has been proven. The choice of a place for planting, soil composition, feeding, protection from pests and diseases will be the same as for red raspberries. However, there are also differences:
The Cumberland raspberry is a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries
For black raspberries in the spring, it is important to form the bushes correctly. After the growth of young annual shoots up to 0.5 m, we cut off their tops by 10 cm, then by autumn they will form into tall shoots. Last year's weak branches are cut to the ground, and strong ones should be shortened, leaving only 4–5 buds.
As we found out earlier, spring care for raspberries starts together with the first sunny days, which come in different regions at different times, but the work scheme itself is about the same.
So what should you do with raspberry bushes in the spring in order to get a rich harvest of large and tasty berries?
As a rule, the list of the main measures for caring for raspberries in spring includes the following:
Next, we will take a closer look at each agrotechnical technique in more detail.
Video: how to care for raspberries in spring
First of all, you will need to remove all the old mulch, weed it out, and also rake all the remaining garbage, the same last year's leaves, and so on, from the trunk circle of the bush, and then burn it.
Together with organic residues, you will get rid of many insect pests and fungal spores left over from the winter. In addition, the open soil will warm up faster with the sun's rays, which will further stimulate the plant by the beginning of the growing season.
Note! Any raspberry is very fond of watering (especially remontant), and it should be watered very abundantly.
Indeed, the fruiting of raspberries largely depends on proper watering.
Thus, in order to constantly provide the raspberry with nutritious moisture, you need to evenly and completely soak the earthen ball to a depth of 20-30 cm (this is the depth of the main roots of the raspberry bush).
The average watering rate for raspberries is 30-40 liters per 1 sq. M.
Important! Do not water raspberries often and little by little. In this case, moisture saturates only the adventitious roots, but it simply does not reach the main ones.
The watering itself is carried out depending on weather conditions. If the weather is sunny and dry, then this should be done, of course, more often. If it is cloudy and rainy, then less often, but you should always monitor the humidity.
Note! The most important periods when raspberries need water most are before flowering and during fruiting (but before picking the berries).
Moreover, if you have a remontant raspberry, then it must be shed abundantly after the first harvest.
And, of course, do not forget about the autumn water-charging irrigation, which is needed by almost all berry bushes and fruit trees.
Watering raspberries in the spring should be carried out not only at the root (more precisely), but also by sprinkling.
Naturally, the most efficient way is drip irrigation - only in this way can you constantly keep the entire earthen ball wet.
The loosening procedure is carried out after watering so that an earthen root does not form.
Thus, due to loosening, the access of air, moisture and nutrition to the plant roots is improved. Moreover, it is better to do this with a special hoe (5-6 cm), in no case with a shovel, because raspberries have a superficial root system (like many shrubs).
This is one of the most important auxiliary agrotechnical methods, which can significantly simplify the care of raspberries, and therefore have a positive effect on its yield.
Why mulch raspberries:
How can you mulch raspberries? For this, mowed grass, hay, straw, rotted sawdust, peat, humus, compost are suitable.
Important! You should not mulch the already heavy soil, otherwise it will acidify even more. In this case, you just need to loosen after each watering.
If, when planting raspberries, you have laid a sufficient amount of nutrients (organic and mineral fertilizers), then you will have to start feeding raspberries only in the 2-3rd year.
In short, the scheme for feeding raspberries in spring and summer is as follows:
Advice! The site already has detailed materials about spring feeding raspberriesand also about autumn.
Video: proper watering and feeding raspberries in spring
The main pruning of raspberries is performed, as a rule, after fruiting (in autumn), but in early spring do only corrective, or rather sanitary pruning.
So, if you have already pruned raspberries in the fall, then you just need to completely remove or cut off all unripe, frozen, broken, dry and damaged shoots to healthy wood.
If not, then you need to conduct a full spring raspberry pruning, namely, remove old, fruiting shoots, and also pinch new ones in order to enhance their branching (growth of lateral branches) = fruiting.
For the future! Of course, if you haven't had the opportunity to prune raspberries in the fallthen it is better to trim in the springrather than not trimming at all.
But still, it is recommended to cut raspberries annually exactly after fruiting and harvesting (i.e. autumn).
To prevent excessive thickening of your raspberry plantation, after many new green shoots appear by mid-late spring, they should be carefully thinned out, leaving only the strongest and most well-located ones, while there should be no more than 6-8 pieces per 1 sq. ... meter.
Thinning raspberries is very convenient after heavy rain or watering when the soil is wet.
Video: thinning raspberries in spring
By the way! If in the fall you bent the bushes to the ground or tied them into a bunch, then, of course, they should be freed first.
Raspberries will bear fruit well only if they grow in a sunny area. However, it is not enough just to plant bushes in an open and lighted place, because there are a lot of shoots, they will corny shade each other. And then a garter will come to your aid.
The procedure itself is most often carried out immediately after spring pruning.
It is the correct raspberry garter that is able to provide each fruiting shoot with the necessary solar nutrition.
Important! About, how to tie up raspberries in spring and autumn, you can read in this material.
After you have done your spring pruning, it's time to process the remaining shoots from diseases and pests.
Advice! About, what and how to spray raspberries in the spring, detailed in this material .
Typical reasons for determining that you should undergo a raspberry transplant:
As a result, the soil is depleted, the bushes begin to shade themselves and lack the necessary nutrition (including lack of light) for good fruiting, respectively, the yields become smaller in volume (quantity) and worse in taste (quality).
Thickened plantings can also cause the rapid spread of various diseases due to poor ventilation (air circulation).
Thus, it is recommended to do the planting and transplanting of the raspberry tree to a new place every 4-5 years. But, of course, if the fruiting and quality of the berries does not deteriorate, then the procedure can be postponed for a couple of years.
More about how to properly plant and transplant raspberries in spring, summer or autumn, read in this article.
When providing plantings with proper care, you can do without the introduction of fertilizers and additional insulation of the bushes, but it will be impossible to cope with diseases and pests without spraying raspberries with various agrochemicals. Pest insects can not only damage the leaves, but also love to feast on juicy ripening berries, and are capable of destroying the entire crop at the root. To protect against pests, you can use both various pesticides and effective folk remedies.
One of these effective folk remedies is mustard powder, one hundred grams of which is diluted in a bucket of water and sprayed with the resulting composition of the leaves. Onion peel tincture is also effective. To prepare it, you need to pour 200 grams of onion husks with 10 liters of water and leave for 4 days. The resulting solution not only allows you to scare off pests, but also is an excellent fertilizer for raspberries. You can also use wood ash-based solutions, to which a small amount of laundry soap is added, as a preventive measure against pests.