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And here are some more judgments:
16. “If you leave some of the garlic un-dug before winter, then next year many large one-toothed bulbs will grow out of the bulbs. They can be planted as planting material. ”I experimented in this way for four years in a row. The effect is always the same - one-toothed crop in the crop is not more than 10%. The rest is medium and small, more often deformed heads.
Why do I need large one-toothed teeth? So after all, the largest heads grow from them. They, in turn, being planted, already give several large heads. It is clear that I could not get one-toothed teeth in this way. In this way, you can get a larger number of medium-sized heads from the same area. It's also good. But the deformed heads look somehow not aesthetically pleasing. I decided to experiment. I planted garlic on parts of the garden with whole heads according to a 20x20 cm scheme.
On the second part, I planted it with nests of three cloves according to the same scheme. I placed the teeth in the "nest" at a distance of 2 centimeters. I planted the third part with the same number of cloves as in the second version, but not with nests, but three times thicker.
The result is as follows: the largest of all the heads in the third version. In the second version, the heads are smaller than in the third, by 10%. But in the first version, the heads turned out to be two times smaller than in the third. Conclusion: it is better to plant not with whole heads and nests, but simply more often. And the heads are smooth.
17. An experiment was carried out on the previous judgment. But the heads accidentally left on the bed, the next year gave a bunch of good heads. Much larger than in the first version of the experiment (see paragraph 16). Why? The care was the same, the planting material was the same. The planting method is the same (heads).
The weather conditions are identical. There is only one difference: in the experiment, the garlic was harvested, dried, and then planted again. And the forgotten heads were not dug up. Maybe this is the case? But really, why do we interrupt the natural processes of ripening of seed bulbs (in the soil)? What is the reason for this? In order to select larger heads for planting, they do not need to be dug out, you can simply rake the mulch and evaluate them. I look through my old records, and I see that the dependence persists: the garlic that was not dug up: the bulbs, single-toothed, heads, sprout earlier, vegetate longer and give a greater harvest. And so under any growing conditions. The root system of garlic left in the ground (if it is not winter) dies off by the time of the natural end of the growing season. It cannot be the cause of the above described plant behavior.
There remains one factor - the continuity of natural processes - as in nature. I propose to experiment: wait until the roots naturally die off, and the covering scales collapse. And then immediately transplant the teeth (one-tooth) to a new bed. No drying. Perhaps this will allow you to get an increased yield. Or maybe not.
18. "Practice has established: the cooler the weather at the beginning of the growing season in spring, the more favorable it is for the future harvest." 2010 proved this very well. All plants are depressed, lagging behind in development by 2-3 weeks, and the garlic is "happy". “I don’t remove mulch from shavings in spring. Long-term experience has confirmed that the soil warms up more slowly under the mulch, and garlic shoots in early spring are protected from sudden daily temperature fluctuations, sometimes reaching 20 ° C and more. "
“In the fall, I planted garlic according to the“ traditional scheme ”, but in the row the garlic was also at a solid distance of 8-10 cm. There were four rows. Covered in the winter with mulch from needles. In the spring, the extreme rows ascended in unison, and in the central two they "lingered," but then everything turned the other way around: the extreme rows were oppressed, and the central rows grew above the knee. The harvest is ripe, respectively: in the center, the garlic is large, and on the sides - small and painful. It seems to me that the reason lies in the mulch. In early spring, at first, the edges of the garden warmed up well, and the center under the mulch remained chilled longer, the garlic on the edges earlier rose and fell under the frost, and in the center the garlic “sat out” until warm days. " Garlic is not afraid of frost, perhaps it is the long-standing cold soil under the mulch that gives an increase in yield. And spring moisture, the most valuable, remains there longer. This means that we will not remove the mulch in the spring. Not out of laziness, but for the sake of creating a favorable environment for garlic.
19. “Garlic should be cultivated as a three-year culture: bulb, one-tooth, clove. With annual planting with chives, the arrowed garlic degenerates and, in the end, from a normal head of 100 grams or more, only its model at a scale of 1:10 remains. And you need to start all over again - by sowing the bulbs ”. My many years of experience show: careful selection with constant planting with chives does the trick - the garlic becomes the largest. But I have never observed a miraculous increase in productivity after recovery through planting bulb-one-tooth-cloves.
“Periodic propagation with air bulbs increases the productivity of plants in comparison with the annual planting of chives, since the planting material - chives grown from bulbs, even with those affected by nematodes, root mites, various diseases (gray rot, rust, fusarium) of plants - is healthy. Garlic practically does not get sick even in 4-5 reproductions (i.e. 4-5 years). And it gives a yield of 30-40% more than when using cloves from an ordinary bulb. " Considering this quote, the "degeneration" of garlic is a banal accumulation of diseases. With my growing technology, I have never observed any serious damage to garlic by pests and diseases. Or maybe our climate is conducive to the health of garlic? And maybe it is not necessary to "heal" garlic with the help of bulbs? Honestly, I don't know the answer here.
20. Every self-respecting garlic gardener grows it through bulbs, one-tooth. In addition to health improvement, an "economic" argument is given:
“What does this technology give? First, a solid saving of planting material. To obtain 200 heads instead of 40-50 bulbs consisting of 4-5 cloves, you will need arrows of only 2-4 plants. That is, 2-4 teeth instead of 200 ".
“The use of bulbs is economically profitable: the multiplication factor is increased by 10-15 times. For example, when multiplying with cloves, the ratio of the yield to the planted mass is 1: 4-5, and when multiplying by bulbs, it is already 1: 50-85. In addition, the entire crop of bulbs obtained is used for commercial purposes ”.
But there are still other quotes: “If you decide to grow garlic with a seed transplant, then by 1 m? it will take up to 500 pieces of air bulbs. Sevka, which will grow on this area, is enough to sow 2-3 m? beds intended for marketable garlic. " From a meter of a ridge, planting material for 2-3 meters - this is the same multiplication factor 1x2, which is less than from the heads, where it is 1x4-5! Maybe there is a mistake in the quote? This is what science says: "The germination rate of air bulbs at the time of sowing is low: for large ones, 33-44%, for small ones, 22-35%."
And in my practice everything looks like this: on average, there are 80 bulbs in one inflorescence. Of the total number of bulbs, the largest are selected - this is no more than 50% of the total mass. Remaining 40 pieces. Hydrosorting will eliminate another 15%. 35 pieces left. Of this amount, 60% will rise. This leaves 21 bulbs. There are 10% very small heads in the crop. There remains 19. Of this amount, 50% will have to be rejected - small and medium. There will remain 10. But from this number of one-toothed large heads, which are valuable for selection selection, 2-3 will grow next year. So, we spent two years to get 2-3 large heads from one inflorescence. We get the same 2-3 large heads in one season from a large head. This is such a "bulb economy". So which is more profitable economically?
I would be glad if someone teaches you how to get more large one-toothed teeth. Write to [email protected]
Oleg Telepov, Omsk
This is another stereotype. Garlic does not freeze! The main reason for the death of garlic is water combined with large amplitudes of day and night temperatures in the spring on poorly drained and water-intensive soils. Usually on loam. The following happens: when the snow cover melts in spring, the water stagnates, and if this is accompanied by large amplitudes of day and night temperatures (in the daytime in the sun + 15ºC, and at night -10ºC), garlic is damaged by ice crystals. The more such cycles, the more likely the death of winter garlic. If the garlic survives, it comes out weakened and is further affected by diseases. I conducted such an experiment in artificial conditions.
The optimal soil for garlic is sandy loam. On heavy soils, it is necessary to raise the beds, and use a lighter soil mixture in the beds, or accept the fact that periodically there will be no harvest of winter garlic. There are no varieties of garlic that can withstand such tests. And I manage to grow on sandy loams, like winter crops, varieties from Vietnam, Indonesia and other southern countries.
There are winter and spring garlic. At first glance, both have an absolutely similar structure: head, roots, stem, leaves ... But in fact, the differences are significant. Winter varieties have one row of large teeth, and spring varieties have several rows, but smaller ones. The winter one can be planted in the spring and, more correctly, in the fall (with a spring planting, it does not have time to divide into cloves), the spring plant is planted exclusively in the spring and yields a harvest in the same year. Winter garlic has more pungency, spring garlic is better stored. If you disassemble a bulb of winter garlic into cloves, you will find that inside it there is a remnant of an arrow (such a peculiar core) around which the garlic is located, but spring garlic does not have such a core, since it does not shoot.
Bulb, or puffed garlic bulbs. © Jeremy Sell
Rocambolla bulbs are harvested when the lower leaves dry and the upper leaves turn yellow - approximately at the end of July-August - when planting before winter, and in September - when planting in spring. You need to dig it out carefully, with mechanical damage, elephant garlic is poorly stored.
The crop is dried together with the adventitious roots and tops in shade and dryness with free air access. Then you can store both "clean" heads and elephant garlic in wreaths and braids.
Rocambol is one of the most durable types of edible onions. Usually, the harvest is perfectly preserved until February-March - in ventilated paper or fabric bags, boxes, boxes, at room temperature (20-25 degrees), protected from light.
As we already remembered, winter garlic can be grown from cloves or from bulbs (in a two-year cycle). The teeth for planting need to be selected large or medium - you cannot get from small good garlic heads. Of course, the planting material must be healthy, not damaged. Even if the garlic is outwardly healthy, but it grew on an area infected with pests or diseases, you should refrain from planting it.
For planting, choose healthy large teeth. Photo by the author
I usually plant garlic without pretreatment, but I read that it is advised to soak the cloves in Fitosporin solution for 5-6 minutes and spill the soil with the same solution before planting. I intend to try this year: I have already been convinced of the undoubted benefits and effectiveness of the drug in practice, so I tend to trust such a recommendation.
They are planted in prepared beds to a depth of 8-10 cm. It is advised to mulch the soil with a layer of peat or humus. With the onset of stable cold weather, I usually cover the beds with spruce branches or straw. The main purpose of such a shelter is to trap snow in the area where the garlic is planted.
On the way home from work I looked into cooking. Behind the counter stood the familiar store director Marina. She fired the saleswomen and was now selling herself. While buying a treat, we got into a conversation. I could not help but boast of a large harvest of garlic. Here my friend says: "And you bring it - we will sell it!"
At the weekend at the dacha, I thought: why not try to sell garlic? I threw 12 large heads into my backpack. On Monday I went into cooking, gave the garlic for sale. Three days later I went for cheese - there is no garlic in the display case. I bought some cheese, Marina gave change and said: “This is 430 rubles for garlic. Bring some more. "
So for 1 kg of garlic I got 400 rubles. Nice, however! Over the next two weeks, I brought another 4 kg of garlic for sale. Marina managed to sell them quickly. In total, I sold 2,000 rubles. The profit for the store was obvious even at such a high small wholesale price: the retail head cost 60 rubles. Garlic was clearly in demand, although it was cheaper in the neighboring market. Paradox!
But at the most interesting place, the stocks of garlic began to run out. Little garlic left. Distributed to friends. This is where I wanted to figure out: is it possible to earn a significant amount on garlic? With such a yield (we plant 1000 heads), for this it is necessary to plow a bed of 6 m by 15 m. The area of the bed is about 1 are. We harvest - 100 kg. If you contrive, we get 400 rubles. for 1 kg. Total - 40,000 rubles. Not a bad extra earnings with relatively little labor costs ... You just can't make money on potatoes. Such a small amount of products can be delivered even without a car: on yourself, in a backpack, hence the minimum logistics costs.
Garlic seeds do not require pre-planting preparation: they are healthy, they are not affected by infection. Larger specimens are selected for breeding: the best one-tootheds ripen from them, with which the variety is then propagated. When to plant, immediately, in the fall, or after wintering, in the spring, is a matter of taste. Although more often the bulbs are sent to the open ground a month and a half before the onset of the winter cold.
Observing the planting scheme on the site, in the fall they choose a garden bed after beans or peas, zucchini with pumpkins. After the summer cabbage, even the siderata have time to ascend, which is also a suitable platform. In terms of timing, residents of the Urals and Siberia are guided by mid-September. In Central Russia, garlic is planted by the end of the month. If autumn is warm, then the planting season stretches until mid-October. Weather forecasts for the current season help to determine the time correctly.
The preparation of the bed begins a week before planting. They dig up soil on the bayonet of the shovel, add organic matter or a mineral complex. Bulbs are planted according to the usual scheme for winter varieties with the only difference: the distance between the small seed cloves is made less - 3-5 cm.This gap is enough if they are to be transplanted next fall. And the depth is the same. That is, the scheme is 3-5cm X 3-5cm. It is slightly higher in clay soils, deeper in sandy soils. But within the indicated limits.
If, at the end of next summer, the gardener does not plan to dig out the one-toothed ones (they can be left before winter, and a year later to harvest the full-fledged garlic), then they are either planted at a large interval or thinned out. This can be done a year later in the fall, when weak plants are visible. They are removed.
Doubting that the small teeth will not survive the frost in the ground, some gardeners from the northern regions plant the bulbs in the spring. But the garden bed is still prepared in the fall: they dig it up, loosen it, fertilize it. So that immediately after the snow has melted and the ground warms up a little, prepare the seats. Covering the soil with a black film or agrotextile, they achieve faster heating of the soil.
Bubbles also need to be prepared for planting. The step-by-step scheme looks like this:
Planting dates for spring garlic:
The scheme is the same as for planting bulbs in winter.