Advice for novice beekeepers. Part 3

"Keep bees - don't lie in the cold"

Swarming bees

In no case do not plant immediately, if there is no bribe, a newly caught swarm into someone else's bee colony - the bees of this bee colony can kill the swarm, even if the swarm bees are with honey. If you want to connect a newly caught swarm with another bee family, do not connect it immediately, but after a few days and only through the newspaper.

Once, having caught a swarm, on the same day in the evening I launched it into another bee colony through the entrance. “Once swarm bees with honey, they will not be killed in someone else's family,” I thought. The next day, getting up early, I was saddened to find that the whole swarm that I had launched into someone else's bee colony had been killed. If I connected the swarm not on the same day as I caught it, but a few days later, and connected it through the newspaper, then the bees would connect gradually and, perhaps, the swarm would remain whole. Only their queen could have suffered, because two queens cannot live in one bee colony. And the bees would have to choose the queens. Since any bee colony lives for the "future generation", it is in its interests to choose the healthiest and most fertile queen. There were cases when a bee colony accepted a swarm and killed its queen, and left the swarm, which came with the swarm, to live in its own family.

I do not advise you to combine a caught swarm with a bee family that is in a swarm state. First, take the bee colony out of the swarm state and only then connect it with the captured swarm through the newspaper. Strong bribes help to bring the bee colony out of the swarm state. But if there is no strong bribe, and you are not going to create it artificially, cut out from the bee family all the queen cells that the bees laid. If you miss at least one mother plant, then the swarm from this family will definitely fly away.

When a swarm leaves its family, it grafts onto the nearest tree or bush. The height of the graft depends on the age of the uterus: if the uterus is old, the swarm sits low, and if the uterus is young, it can graft on the tallest tree that is in your area or near it. He will sit there for about three hours, until the scout bees sent by the swarm find shelter. But if the swarm leaves its family, and the weather suddenly deteriorates, then the bees do not necessarily return back to their "home", to their hive. In my practice, there were such cases when a swarm lived on a tree in anticipation of good weather for about seven days!

Once, watching the bees, I saw with horror a swarm flying out of the hive. Due to the rainy weather all week, I could not see this bee colony and take measures to prevent the bees from swarming. First, the swarm flew to the top of the pine, but then descended a little and sat on the trunk of the top of the spruce, the height of which was about 9 meters. It was impossible to get to the swarm, since I did not have a ladder of this size. In addition, the branches at the top were thin. Then, unexpectedly, it began to rain. And instead of flying away in a few hours, the swarm stayed at the tree to spend the night - as if he was giving me a chance to take it off. He hung like that for several days, and I walked around the tree, but I could not help it. When the weather improved, the sun came out, he calmly left my site and flew to an unknown home for me.

Since the swarms sometimes sit high, the beekeeper needs to be able to climb trees. After all, he needs not only to climb to the swarm, but also, sitting high on a tree, be able to skillfully plant it in the swarm, while transferring bee stings! Therefore, before allowing the swarming of a bee colony and keeping bees, think: can you do such acrobatic "tricks"? Recommend: if you are going to allow swarming, you need to take care that there are no tall trees in and around the site.

But if you don't want your bees to swarm, consider the following:

  • while there is no bribe or there is, but very bad, divide the bee colony in half. In the part that was left without a queen, the bees will lay queen cells in order to bring out another queen. In the same half, place the frames with the printed brood from the half with the old queen. Then, when the main bribe begins, unite the two families into one again. In this way, you will avoid swarming of the entire bee colony, and, if you are lucky, will bring out a young queen. You just need to remember that in the half that you left without a queen, the bees will take care of themselves and begin to work fruitfully only when they hatch a young queen, which flies around and starts laying eggs;
  • if dividing the bee colony is impractical, try to load the bees with work. The more work a bee colony has, the less bees "think" about reproduction. It is very good when there is a strong bribe. Then the bee colony will mobilize all its relatives to bring as much nectar as possible for itself and for the “future generation”. The instinct to get as much food as possible is higher than the reproductive instinct of bees. But if the weather deteriorates, and the bees cannot even fly out of the hive, then after a few days they can go into a swarm state. So that the bee colony in bad weather could not even "think" about swarming, some beekeepers at this time begin to give it sugar syrup. Thus, they give the bees work, and the bee colony does not think about swarming.

But bees can swarm not only from a lack of work, but also from a lack of "living conditions": if they are cramped in the hive, some of them will fly away to look for new spacious housing. Sometimes bees swarm when they realize that the queen has nowhere to worm - all frames are filled with honey or bee bread. In these cases, so that the bees do not feel cramped in the hive, I recommend expanding the bee's nest in advance. To do this, you can put additional boxes with dry land and foundation (if the hive is multi-hull) or additional stores (if you keep the bees in a bed).

Freedom to collect honey

True, this can only be done in warm weather. Free space in the hive is also very important for honey collection. It is necessary for bees so that they can make honey from nectar. Therefore, I recommend: if there is a strong bribe and the weather is warm, put one additional building or store with land, where the bees will put the newly brought nectar, which will gradually ripen.

Several years ago, in the fall, when forming a bee's nest for the winter (you can read how to prepare bees for winter in my article in # 8, 2013), I gave the bees sugar syrup so that they could supplement their incomplete frames and seal them. Some families took syrup well, and a few hives took almost nothing. When I examined these hives, I saw that the bees had nowhere to put the syrup, and even more so from it to make honey. There was no free space for this in the hive - free honeycombs! Therefore, if in the summer during honey collection the bee colony will work poorly for you, be sure to see if it has free combs, where the bees can put the newly brought nectar.

Some beekeepers have a deficit of frames during the bribe, because of this, during the bribe, they have to take unsealed honey from the bees and pump out the unsealed honey, and put the frames back in the hive. When selecting honey, I advise you to take only completely printed frames from the hive, in extreme cases, there should be at least two-thirds of the printed frames. Unprintable honey can be taken only if the bribe has not been more than three weeks. If you hurry up and pump out unprintable (unripe) honey, then after that it can sour.

But mature honey can also deteriorate if stored in a damp room, where it can pick up a lot of moisture. Therefore, I recommend storing the pumped honey only in a dry place. Be sure to ensure that no water gets into it.

Good luck in keeping bees and a good bribe for the new season to all novice beekeepers!

Dmitry Mamontov, beekeeper
Photo by the author

What every gardener needs to know

Below are the basic general methods of site development, vegetable placement and the basics that any budding gardener should know.

Garden layout

Farmer planning advice includes several basic tenets:

  1. Maximum light distribution. Almost every plant loves a lot of warmth and light, especially during the period of active flowering or fruiting. Therefore, so that both sides evenly heat the sun's rays - the garden is planned from north to south.
  2. Calculation of labor costs. The garden should be fun, so plan as much space for planting as you can handle and use.
  3. The width of the beds should not exceed 70 cm, and the shape is created as simple as possible. It is convenient to approach it from any side, moisturizing occurs evenly, and the culture can develop calmly.
  4. Adjust the width of the aisles in relation to the height of the plants. For example, the standard is 40 cm, with long lashes and the presence of walls - add another 20-35 cm.

Don't be afraid to mix cultures. The garden benefits from this aesthetically, and the crops help each other in the fight against pests and diseases.

Crop rotation

The traditional crop rotation in the fields differs significantly from the crop rotation in the summer cottage. There is a specificity here: one type of plant should not be grown in one place for more than 4 years, as the soil may be depleted. To avoid this, the site is divided into 3 large zones:

  1. Plants that require constant feeding and a large amount of trace elements: potatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage. Before planting them, the soil is actively fertilized with humus or manure.
  2. Relatively patient in the use of nutrients: tomatoes, beets, eggplants, cucumbers.
  3. Vegetables that can grow on poor soil: legumes, herbs, onions, flowers.

An example of accounting for crop rotation on the assessment of onion predecessors.

Plants are similar in appearance, similar in diseases - therefore, it is better to plant them away from each other.

One of the secrets of crop rotation is the constant movement of crops from one area to another. Thus, the balance of substances in all layers of the soil is maintained, and the yield remains always high.

Correct soil cultivation

Soil preparation for spring sowing begins in the fall. For better natural irrigation of the inner layers, the soil after harvesting is dug up in several stages: shallow at the end of August to a depth of about 10 cm deep - by 18-23 cm, break large clods, carry out processing.

  1. The treatment procedure includes disinfection from pests, possible infections and the introduction of organic fertilizers: manure, humus, lime, ash, chicken droppings.
  2. When digging, remove the roots of the weeds, beetle larvae, wireworm, old tops.
  3. In the fall, soil is poured to the bottom, branch channels are mounted if necessary.

Thorough soil preparation is especially important in podzolic soils. In them, the fertile layer is initially no more than 5 cm.

The optimum depth of the arable layer is 30-35 cm, while fertilizers, lime and organic matter are added there. The loose layer gradually accumulates useful substances in itself, is structured, naturally irrigated and enriched with oxygen.

Arrangement of beds

In addition to the fact that the garden bed carries a certain functionality, it also has a visually aesthetic part. Experienced gardeners form compositions from different plants, alternating high and low plantings.

For example, single islands with corn, sunflower or rhubarb are used for a decorative accent of the site. Sorrel and horseradish are planted under them. The whole image is enriched with flowers or umbrella herbs: oregano, mint, dill.

One of the favorite moves of landscape designers is vertical gardening. Lashes of legumes, zucchini, cucumbers in a bright combination with marigolds or calendula look spectacular in this way.

So that the beds are not boring, they use useful borders: various types of salads, purple basil, chard, parsley or coriander.

When planting fragrant herbs: dill, thyme, mint, parsley - you get not only a great view, but also a powerful shield against insect pests.

Advice for novice beekeepers. Part 3 - garden and vegetable garden

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

Do you want to grow a rich crop on your site, preserve the beneficial properties of each vegetable and fruit, improve plant growth with the least amount of money and without chemical fertilizing? Then correlate each type of work with the position of the moon - and notice how crops react differently on different lunar days.

The sowing calendar from Tatiana Borsch will tell you when and how best to plant, huddle, weed and feed your plants in order to get a bountiful harvest and preserve all of its useful properties. And tips and little tricks from an experienced gardener Boris Bublik will help you to properly organize watering, planting seedlings and feeding yours.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

This book will focus on annual flowers, or, as they are often called, annuals (annuals), as well as flowers grown in a biennial culture. Of course, in a small book it is impossible to tell about all existing annual flowers, so we had to limit their range. The book provides basic information about the most common plants, the cultivation of which does not require much work and time-consuming caring for them. Each plant has its own quirks, I definitely pay attention to them. In addition, the book provides various information useful for flower growers on the location of flower beds in the shade, in the sun, on different types of soil, on the organization of continuous flowering beds, on the assortment of plants for monochrome flower beds that are now fashionable all over the world. Using the simple drawings that are given in this book, you can easily create your own personal masterpieces on your little one.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

“We are growing seedlings and planting an orchard.

This book describes the different ways of growing seedlings of flower, vegetable and green crops, as well as highlights the pros and cons of one or another method. So each reader can choose what suits him best. Never give up what you didn’t succeed the first time around. Try again by reading the recommendations more carefully, maybe something.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

From the very title of this book, it is clear that it is dedicated to protecting the garden against pests and diseases. without the use of chemicals. Is it possible? Quite. Firstly, scientists have developed modern biological remedies, secondly, there are excellent, time-tested grandfather's methods, thirdly, there are agrotechnical methods that allow you to get rid of parasites, and fourthly, there is information medicine - homeopathy, which came to us to help, and most importantly, healthy plants do not touch pests and do not take diseases. So our task with you is to give them this health and to support it in time if it is shaken.

It was my task to acquaint you, dear readers, with the concept of a healthy garden. I hope that this book will help you understand the danger that threatens your health when using chemical remedies in a small garden, teach you how to grow a healthy garden and vegetable garden, as well as help you rid fruits and vegetables grown with the use of pesticides or in ecologically unfavorable areas from excess nitrates and toxic substances.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

Every day, gardeners and amateur gardeners have many questions: how and where to plant plants correctly, which varieties to choose, why are green pets sick? Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima, a gardener with many years of experience, gives only reasonable advice on growing vegetables, trees, shrubs and flowers. The book is built on the basis of the questions that concern gardeners and which are most often asked to the author by readers and.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

This book is written especially for hobby gardeners and is therefore free from scientific terminology. It summarizes the unique experience of both the author himself and many gardeners and gardeners who grow abundant harvests in their small plots. Readers will learn how to grow vegetables, berries, fruits with minimal effort and time, how to protect their plants from pests, etc.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

This book is entirely devoted to berries on six acres. It tells in detail which berry bushes can be grown in a small garden, and which are not worth it, when and how they should be planted, what is the care of berries, which remedies against pests and diseases are best used without harming your health, when and how to prune, what is the easiest way to propagate certain plants, which of the newly appeared varieties should be purchased and which should not, and why, how to properly place strawberries and berry bushes in the garden, given their compatibility with others.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

In this book, an attempt is made to fulfill the long-standing dream of humanity about how to work in such a way as to do nothing, but at the same time receive something. And preferably more. The author of the book, Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima, has brought together the experience accumulated by "lazy" gardeners, including her own. But don't flatter yourself. Nobody will be able to do anything at all, but it is quite possible to significantly reduce the most labor-intensive work on the site. How to achieve this and why this is, in principle, not only possible, but also correct, is precisely what is written in this book.

The book is addressed to both beginners and experienced.

Genre: Garden and Vegetable Garden, Home and Family

The first chapter of this book by GA Kizima, an experienced gardener, author of articles in newspapers, an excellent lecturer and presenter of gardening programs on the radio, is devoted to such "garden generals" as carrots, beets, radishes, radishes, turnips, etc.

In the second chapter, Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima talks about the peculiarities of growing lettuce and gingerbread plants, and in the third, about the whole variety of onions and garlic.

The book will be of interest to both beginners and experienced.

Kashkovsky - the great teacher of the science of beekeeping

Throughout the history of its existence, man tried and tries to learn the secrets of beekeeping. Today this activity is a whole science, the comprehension of which requires its own teaching and teachers. One of these can be called Professor Kashkovsky. Kashkovsky's lectures on beekeeping, the videos of which you will see in our article, are a good introduction to the study and comprehension of the secrets of this great science. So let's not waste a minute!

How to plant a pear correctly - step by step instructions

The pear is grafted by budding method in late July-early August. A young seedling planted in open ground is used as a stock.

Pear rootstock can be purchased at specialized nurseries.

Vaccination is performed as follows:

1. Rake the soil from the rootstock trunk so that the root collar is visible. Then carefully remove all branches at a height of about 10 cm from the ground and wipe this part of the trunk with a damp cloth. A T-shaped incision about 3 cm long is made on the root collar with a sharp knife.

First make a horizontal line, and then a vertical

It is desirable that the vaccination site is located on the north side: this way it will take root better.

2. Then they take a high-quality pear stalk and cut off a well-developed kidney from it with a special budding knife, together with the adjacent tissues - the so-called shield. In this case, the flap should be equal to the size of the cut on the rootstock.

It is very important to carefully cut the flap. To do this, the budding knife should be applied at a distance of 1.5 cm above the kidney and, leading the instrument down, cut off the peephole along with the bark and the top layer of wood. So, the distance from the kidney to the lower edge of the shield should also be about 1.5 cm.

3. Then, with the edge of a knife, the bark is pushed apart in a T-shaped cut made on the scion.

The bark must be moved apart very carefully.

4. Insert the kidney there together with the shield, press it tightly with your fingers.

Remember not to touch the slices with your fingers.

5. The vaccination site is tied with plastic tape so that only the kidney remains visible, and the flap is covered.

There should be no gaps between the layers of the strapping material

You can also inoculate the pear with budding in the butt. This method differs from the above only in that a side cut is made on the rootstock, which coincides in width and length with the size of the scion, a shield with an eye is applied to it and tied with polyethylene tape.

Such a cut is made on the rootstock when budding in the butt

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