Homemade nightshade


The nightshade plant (Solanum) is considered part of the Solanaceae family. In nature, it can most often be found in South America, or rather, in its tropical and temperate latitudes. The genus Nightshade includes more than 1,700 species.

This genus is represented by trees, shrubs, as well as herbaceous perennials and annuals. Shoots can be erect or creeping. Depending on the type of foliage, it can have a different shape. The genus Nightshade includes many "food" crops, for example: potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, etc. However, among the numerous representatives of the genus, there are also weeds, and such plants contain toxic substances.

At home, in greenhouses and in garden plots, it cultivates a small number of species of nightshade. The most popular species are pepper nightshade, edged and dark brown. If you decide to grow such a crop at home, then you will need to provide it with increased air humidity, systematic humidification from a spray bottle, and in winter it needs a cool content. The plant needs to be pruned, otherwise it looks untidy and loses its decorative properties.

Brief description of cultivation

  1. Bloom... It starts in February or March and ends in October.
  2. Illumination... Needs a lot of bright light to be diffused.
  3. Temperature regime... In the spring-summer period - from 18 to 26 degrees, and in winter - from 12 to 14 degrees.
  4. Watering... In April – September, the soil mixture is moistened when its top layer dries out. With the onset of the autumn period, the frequency and abundance of watering is reduced. And in winter, they only make sure that the earthen coma does not dry out.
  5. Air humidity... Must be high at any time of the year. To increase the humidity, the pot with the bush is placed on a deep tray filled with wet expanded clay. On hot days, the plant is moistened with a spray bottle.
  6. Fertilizer... From the last days of spring to the beginning of the autumn period, nightshade is fed 2 or 3 times a month. For this, a complex mineral for flowering crops is used in liquid form.
  7. Dormant period... It starts in October and ends in February.
  8. Pruning... In the spring, after the fruits ripen and the yellowing of the foliage begins.
  9. Transfer... It is carried out annually in the spring, immediately after pruning.
  10. Soil mixture... Sod and leafy soil, peat (1: 1: 1).
  11. Reproduction... Stem cuttings and seed method.
  12. Pests... Aphids, whiteflies and spider mites.
  13. Diseases... With excessively high humidity and air temperature, the plant can shed its foliage ahead of time.

Indoor nightshade: how to properly care for and transplant

Caring for nightshade at home

Illumination

At any time of the year, homemade nightshade needs a lot of bright, but diffused light. A western or eastern window sill is perfect for him. The flower can also be placed on the south window, but in this case it will need shading at noon from the scorching rays of the sun. The northern windowsill is not suitable for such a crop, as poor lighting can cause poor flowering, as well as slowdown in the growth and development of the bush.

Temperature regime

In spring and summer, the bush feels great at an air temperature of 18-26 degrees. It is kept cool during the winter months. If the room is warmer than 18 degrees, then this can cause leaves and fruits to fly around. In this regard, in winter, the air temperature in the room should be 12-14 degrees.

In the summer, when it is warm outside, the plant can be rearranged to fresh air; a balcony or garden is suitable for this. For him, choose a place protected from precipitation and direct sunlight. In winter, the room where the nightshade is located must be systematically ventilated, but at the same time it must be protected from drafts.

Watering

During the growing season, which lasts from April to September, the plant is provided with abundant watering. It is carried out immediately after the surface of the soil mixture dries slightly. In autumn and winter, watering is reduced: it should be more rare and scarce. However, it is impossible to overdry the earthen lump.

Air humidity

The plant needs high humidity all year round. It should be systematically moistened from the sprayer, and also place the container with the bush on a deep pallet, which must first be filled with wet pebbles or expanded clay, while the bottom of the pot should not come into contact with the liquid. Due to the low humidity of the air, fruiting may begin later and be weaker.

Fertilizer

The culture is fed 2 or 3 times throughout the month. In this case, feeding should be carried out from the last days of May to the first days of September. For feeding nightshade, you can use special fertilizers for decorative flowering indoor crops or for tomatoes. It is better if the fertilizer is in liquid form. The concentration of the nutrient solution should be the same as recommended by the manufacturer (see packaging).

Pruning

Cutting stems by 1/3 part should be carried out annually in spring. As a rule, pruning is carried out after the fruits ripen and the yellowing of the leaf plates begins. And in order for the bush to be more lush, in the autumn it is recommended to pinch its stems without flowers and buds.

Transplant nightshade

When the spring pruning is finished, you should transplant the bush into a new fertile soil mixture. In order for the water not to stagnate in the roots of the plant, a drainage layer 30 mm thick is made at the bottom of the pot; for this, small pieces of brick or expanded clay are used.

For transplanting a bush, a soil mixture consisting of leafy and soddy soil, as well as peat (1: 1: 1), is suitable. You can also use a substrate consisting of peat and sod soil, as well as sand and humus (2: 2: 1: 2). The transplanted bush must be watered. Its first feeding is carried out only 15 days after the procedure.

Transplanting and shaping nightshade in BONSAI style

Properties

Severe poisoning may develop if the fruit of the indoor nightshade is swallowed. In this regard, one must be very careful if there are pets or small children in the house.

Reproduction methods

Cuttings

For propagation of indoor nightshade, stem cuttings are used. After the plant is cut in the spring, the remaining segments are not thrown away. Choose the most powerful and completely healthy segments and plant them for rooting. To do this, you can use a mixture of peat and sand, or vermiculite, or just sand.

When the cutting takes root, it is planted in a permanent individual pot, which is filled with an earth mixture consisting of sand, sod and humus soil (1: 1: 2). Do not forget to make a drainage layer at the bottom of the container. On the transplanted bush, pinch the tops of the stems to strengthen its branching. During the summer, you can carry out a few light pruning, which will also help to stimulate the tillering of the plant.

Pruning and propagation of nightshade. Results six months later

Growing from seeds

For propagation of nightshade, the seed method is also used. Start by filling a small container with sifted, leafy soil. Spread the seed evenly over the surface of the substrate. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of sand. The crops are slightly moistened from a spray bottle, covered with glass or film on top and transferred to a place where it is always warm (about 22 degrees).

The first seedlings should appear after about 15 days. As the seedlings grow and develop, they will need 2 picks. Then the bushes are transplanted into a soil mixture from sod and humus soil, and also sand (1: 2: 1). Further, they are looked after in the same way as for rooted cuttings (see above).

Possible problems

With indoor nightshade, a florist may have the following problems:

  1. Does not form fruit. Indoor plants may need artificial pollination. To do this, it is recommended to take a brush with soft bristles and use it to transfer pollen from one flower to another.
  2. Flying around foliage and fruits... Most often this is due to the fact that the room is too hot and the air humidity is very high.
  3. Pests... Aphids, whiteflies or spider mites can settle on the plant. The bushes that are in a room with too low air humidity are most often affected.

Types of nightshade with photos and names

Jasmine nightshade (Solanum jasminoides)

The homeland of this species is Brazil. It is represented by evergreen shrubs, which have thin, curly stems without pubescence. Their length can reach 400 cm. The tops of the stems are decorated with elongated ovoid, whole-edged simple leaf plates, on the surface of which there is no pubescence. In the lower part of the stems, glossy trifoliate most often grows, the width of which is about 30 mm, and the length is up to 70 mm.

As a rule, quite lush bloom is observed from early March to mid-October. In diameter, the bluish flowers reach about 20 mm, while they are collected in apical paniculate inflorescences. The deep red fruits are about 15 mm in diameter.

Giant nightshade (Solanum giganteum)

The species is represented by a branching evergreen shrub, the height of which can reach up to 6 meters. The surface of thick branches is covered with pubescence in the form of whitish hairs, as well as short spines. On the shoots there are elongated-oval dark green leaf plates, the length of which is about 25 cm. On the seamy surface of the foliage, there is pubescence, represented by white hairs.

The bush blooms from mid-July to late August. On the plant, corymbose apical inflorescences are formed, consisting of hanging dark purple flowers, which are relatively small in size. In domestic culture, the species is rare, most often it can be seen in greenhouses.

Zeafort's nightshade (Solanum seaforthianum)

The species is represented by a highly decorative evergreen shrub, the height of which is about 5–6 meters. Its curly stems are decorated with lanceolate, less often ovate-lanceolate leaf plates. They are pinnate, whole-edged and slightly wavy. The bush blooms from early March to mid-late autumn. Axillary panicle inflorescences are composed of drooping lavender flowers. Egg-shaped berries have a red-orange color.

Wendland nightshade (Solanum wendlandii)

In nature, the species is found in the mountainous regions of Central America at an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters. It is represented by evergreen branching shrubs, which are about 4 meters high. The surface of the twining branches is covered with short thorns. In the upper part of the stems, the foliage is oblong-elliptical, and its length is about 10 centimeters. In the lower part of the branches there is a three-lobed foliage of a dark green hue, which is about 10 centimeters wide and up to 25 centimeters long.

Blooms in the summer months. Apical corymbose panicles are formed on the bush. Densely growing purple flowers in diameter reach from 50 to 60 mm. The color of the fruit is deep purple.

Curly nightshade (Solanum crispum)

This decorative and flowering species is distinguished by its rapid growth and curly stems. Blue-purple flowers are collected in apical scutes.

False Nightshade (Solanum pseudocapsicum)

The species is represented by a non-deciduous shrub, the height of which is about 50 cm. Branching stems are decorated with dark green elongated lanceolate leaf plates.

With optimal care, the bush blooms and bears fruit all year round. Single small flowers are white. Outwardly, the fruits are similar to cherries. Their color depends on the degree of ripeness and can vary from green to deep red. The berries are very bitter and should not be eaten.

Pepper nightshade (Solanum capsicastrum)

The people also call the species "Jerusalem cherry". An evergreen low-growing dwarf shrub in height can reach a little more than half a meter. Elongated lanceolate gray-green leaf plates have a wavy edge and different sizes.

The bush blooms from June to August. Red fruits reach about 20 mm in diameter, they contain poison.

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