Cherries are a valuable and healthy dietary product. Today, many gardening enthusiasts prefer unpretentious and at the same time high-yielding varieties of cherries. Cherry variety Molodezhnaya perfectly combines these qualities, which is described in this article.
Cherry variety Molodezhnaya was bred by breeder Kh.D. Enikeev together with S.N. Saratova. They crossed two varieties of cherries together: Lyubskaya and Vladimirskaya. In 1993, the resulting crossing cherry variety was entered in the state register.
This variety of cherry grows in the central region and in the Urals. Cherry Youth can grow in the form of a tree or bush. A tree or bush grows up to 2.5 meters in height... The foliage of a tree or bush forms a rounded shape, slightly drooping. Leaves are medium in size, bright green in color.
The inflorescences of the plant consist of five or seven flowers, the diameter of which is 1.8-3 cm. The flowers are white, the stamens and pistil are equal in height, which allows the plant to self-pollinate.
Youth belongs to self-fertile varieties... This variety will please you with its fruits pretty soon. Already in the fourth year, the tree begins to bear fruit. And after another four years, vigorous fruiting begins, which lasts until the plant reaches 15-20 years.
Flowering begins in mid-May, and by mid-July you can harvest berries... During the fruiting period, one bush or tree can produce from 10 to 12 kg of berries.
The Molodezhnaya variety has average winter hardiness. The flower buds are also moderately resistant. This variety of cherry tree has an average degree of resistance to diseases such as coccomycosis and moniliosis., as well as to various microorganisms.
A humid and warm climate provokes the development of diseases in a plant.
The fruits are formed on the branches of the last year or bouquet.
Berries have a sweet and sour taste, dense, juicy dark red flesh... Their weight reaches five grams. A medium-sized bone is quite easily separated from the pulp. The berries are oblong. Dense fruits are resistant to transportation and mechanical damage.
Cherries of this variety are rich in vitamins and organic acids, as well as phosphorus and potassium.
The taste of the fruits is dominated by sweetness, so their often used in the preparation of a variety of dessert dishes... Berries are great for fresh consumption.
Youth has many positive qualities.
These include the following characteristics:
However, along with the advantages, this species has some features that should be taken into account when cultivating:
These features of care do not in the least detract from the value of the Youth.
In order for the plant to please with a rich harvest, you need to take care of her properlyb. An important role in this is played by the choice of the place and time of landing.
It is preferable to choose the location for Molodezhnaya cherry on a low hill, which is not blown by the winds and at the same time receives enough sunlight.
The most favorable soil for growing juveniles is sandy loam with neutral acidity.
It is necessary to plant seedlings either in early spring or in early autumn. (end of September). So the plant adapts to the winter cold and overwinters calmly. Later planting dates increase the risk that the plant will not be accepted.
Stages of planting a seedling:
It is important that at first the soil near the seedling does not dry out and is loose.
When planting a 2-year-old seedling, I need to cut it off.... First of all, all shoots that extend at an angle of 90 degrees from the branches are cut off. Next, the "skeleton" of the plant is outlined - three main branches. Around the main branches, all branches are cut, except for those that depart at right angles from the "trunk".
Although cherry is a rather unpretentious plant. To get a rich harvest, you must follow some rules in caring for it.
When watering, it is important not to soak the ground, as high humidity negatively affects Youth.
If all the recommendations are followed, the plant will delight for a long time with a large and tasty harvest.
Harvesting should start from the twentieth of July. The fruiting period ends in August.
In order for the berry to be kept fresh for a long time, it must be carefully sorted. Only dense berries are left for storage, without external damage, the color of the stalk is green... Cover the prepared container (tray, box) with paper. Put the berries on the bottom. In this case, the layer of berries should not exceed ten centimeters. Remove the container with berries and store in the refrigerator. The temperature should be between 0˚C and + 2˚C. In this form, the fruits are stored for two weeks.
If the berries are frozen instantly, the shelf life will increase from three to six months.
You can also make a variety of compotes, preserves, jam or cherry jams and enjoy them all year round.
Youth, unlike many other varieties of cherry, is resistant to fungal diseases.
The most dangerous disease for this variety is moniliosis.... With this disease, the branches gradually dry out. In this case, the plant can be either completely affected by this disease, or its individual parts.
When establishing this disease, it is necessary to cut off all diseased branches with an indentation of 15-20 cm to the healthy parts of the branch. Cut branches must be disposed of to prevent the spread of the disease.
Cherry Youth prone to monilial burn, which manifests itself during the flowering of flowers. To cure it, it is necessary to spray the leaves of the plant with a special solution. This disease also spreads quickly, so you need to carefully monitor the nearby trees.
When yellow leaves appear on the plant more attention should be paid to it. Especially if the color changes quite quickly and the leaves turn purple. This may signal a disease or a lack of nitrogen fertilizer in the soil.
Vladimir: The berries of the Youth are ripe in my garden. I liked it very much! The taste of the berries pleased me, more sweet than sour. The only drawback is the height of the bush, only 50 cm from the ground.
Nikolay: Raised Youth near Shokoladnitsa. I have never seen so many berries in a season. The trees are literally sprinkled with cherries!
Michael: With the variety Molodezhnaya is well known. A large number of positive properties. The plant is fruitful, self-fertile, tolerates winter well. The berries hang on the bushes for a long time and do not crumble.
Cherry varieties Molodezhnaya are the favorite of a large number of summer residents. The plant has a high yield due to self-fertility.... It is even cultivated on an industrial scale.
The berries are large, with dense and juicy pulp, they are perfectly stored and transported.
There are no complex nuances in the cultivation of this variety. It is enough just to get down to business with responsibility and love, and a rich harvest will soon be provided.
Cherries are a valuable dietary product that improves appetite.
Cherries are eaten fresh, dried and canned. Jam, jam, compotes, syrups, extracts, liqueurs and liqueurs, wines and fruit water are made from it.
Cherry Youth is quite common due to its yield and juicy tasty fruits, a full description of the variety, reviews of gardeners, photos of the fruits and the tree itself later in the article.
In general, the variety is quite old - the Molodezhnaya ordinary cherry was bred back in the USSR in 1978. But it was further improved and tested - under what conditions it will begin to dry, what frost it can survive.
Therefore, the variety was entered into the state register only in 1993. At the same time, a recommendation was made - this cherry is best suited for growing in the Central region of Russia with a harsh climate and relatively low humidity.
Cherry Molodezhnaya is an ideal variety for growing in Russian gardens. He normally tolerates negative weather factors and bears fruit stably. This material will tell you how to grow a cherry from a stone.
It is almost impossible to ruin the harvest of the Youth, but in order for the plant to grow well, a fresh, viable seedling is needed.
Cherry Molodezhnaya belongs to frost-resistant plants. She tolerates medium frosts well, harsh Siberian and Ural winters, like most other varieties, does not like (covering with spruce branches, hay, snow drift must be done).
The culture's disease resistance is average. If you ignore the need for preventive treatments, do not follow the care requirements, problems cannot be avoided. Negative neighborhood also aggravates the situation. Damage by fungi, viruses, decay, drying is often associated with a lack of nutrients. So that the culture does not grow normally, if signs of disease are detected, take measures in a timely manner:
With fungal infections, cherries are treated with Bordeaux liquid 1%, insecticidal preparations help well against insects. Examine the tree regularly for damage to leaves and branches. The damaged areas are removed, and the rest of the tree is treated with antibacterial drugs (these are Horus, HOM, Topaz).
With Molodezhnaya cherries, you can be calm about the future harvest, even if the weather conditions are not favorable for natural bee pollination. The culture pollinates itself, that is, the presence of a favorable neighborhood is not necessary for it - this is an important point if there is not enough space on the site.Molodezhnaya also pollinates other cherries growing on the site - mainly varieties with late ripening (Calling, Shubinka, Griot Moskovsky, Shokoladnitsa).
Cherry fruits are large, oval, burgundy, according to their taste, they belong to the dessert. The yield of the variety due to self-pollination is high - about 12 kg from one cherry, but this indicator can be increased due to competent agricultural technology. The culture begins to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting. In the future, fruiting is early, annual, stable. Ripening occurs in mid-summer - that is, the month of July. In regions with cold climates, it may be later. Berries tolerate transportation well, send for storage dense, strong fruits without damage.
Cherries are a favorite berry of many gardeners. These trees are usually hardy, unpretentious and fruitful. In any case, these are the qualities that Molodezhnaya cherry, recommended for cultivation in the Central region of Russia, possesses.
This cherry, which has an average ripening period, was bred by scientists of the All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery H.D. Enikeev and S.N. Satarova. Zoned for the Central region of Russia, but also grown in the Urals, Belarus and Ukraine.
The tree is weak or medium-sized (2–2.5 m), has a somewhat drooping, rounded crown. The branches are covered with medium-sized bright green leaves. Fruit wood is last year's growths and bouquet twigs. Flowering occurs in mid-May.
During flowering cherry blossoms are not inferior in beauty to the famous sakura
Fruits are rather large (4.5–5 g), oval-rounded, dark burgundy in color. The flesh of cherries is dense, saturated with dark red juice, sweet and sour taste. The bone can be easily separated from the pulp.
Ripe cherries have a beautiful burgundy color
Planting a tree should be taken very responsibly, since mistakes made at this stage will be difficult to correct in the future.
With good drainage, cherries can thrive in almost any soil, but are best suited to neutral or slightly alkaline soil. Since cherries bloom early, they should not be planted in places where cold air stagnates.
It is advisable to plant cherries on a site with a slight slope, but you should not choose hills for planting: snow cover is blown off them, even with weak winds, and in summer the soil is very dry. Trees tolerate partial shade well, so they can be planted on the north side of the fence. Groundwater should be no closer than 2–2.5 m from the surface of the earth.
If the tree is planned to be formed with a central guide, it needs to be tied to a support stake for 4-5 years. In fan-shaped form, pull the support wire on the fence at intervals of 15 cm before planting.
The distance to other trees should be 3–3.5 m.
Cherry quite actively forms root suckers, which often have the properties of a mother plant and can be used for planting. It is only necessary to properly separate and transplant the growth so that it quickly takes root in a new place. Choose 1- or 2-year-old root suckers. Use a sharp shovel at a distance of 20–25 cm from the mother tree to chop off the roots leading to the growth. Carefully dig up the ground around the offspring, regularly destroy weeds and water. You can transplant a plant to a new place only the next year.
Good planting material can be obtained from cherry root shoots.
You should not buy seedlings with dry branches and roots, with damaged bark or dried buds.
If you want to plant a purchased seedling, be sure to take the grafted one (check the availability of the grafting site on the trunk).
Planting can be done both in spring and in autumn, during the dormant period of the tree. In regions with early and severe winter, planting is recommended in the spring (seedlings purchased in the fall can be dug in). In spring, planting should not be done too early - you need to wait for the soil to warm up properly. Cherries are usually planted later than apples and pears. Delaying the landing is also not recommended - try to be in time before bud break.
Destroy weeds and grass in the selected area in advance by shallow loosening.
Dig the planting hole in the fall, separating the fertile and infertile soil layers. The size of the pit depends on the strength of the root growth, although in any case - the larger the size of the pit, the better. Usually a hole 0.8–1 m wide and 0.4–0.6 m deep is sufficient for a cherry tree.
The planting hole should be sized to match the size of the root system. Fertile soil should be folded into a separate pile.
Mix fertile soil with humus or compost (15–20 kg), superphosphate (0.4–0.5 kg), potassium sulfate (55–60 g) or ash (0.4–0.6 kg). If you want to reduce the acidity of the soil, add 200-300 g of crushed lime. Make a pillow out of this mixture at the bottom of the hole.
Cherry care is not particularly difficult, but it has some nuances.
Cherry needs especially careful care in the first year after planting, since during this period there is a slow recovery of the root system and the aerial part damaged during planting. It is especially important to provide the plant with moisture. Watering should be done every 10–12 days, after which the soil must be loosened and mulched with a 7–8 cm layer of manure or humus. This not only helps to retain moisture, but also nourishes the young tree additionally.
It is useful to mulch young trees with compost or manure.
Weeds should be removed regularly to avoid ripening. You cannot plant vegetables, berries and other crops under a tree in the first year.
Formative, thinning and sanitary pruning is required for any fruit tree.
Cherry trees can be formed in the form of a bush or in a standard form - fan or pyramidal. Youth is small in size, so it is better to grow it in a fan shape near the fence. To do this, after the formation of a trunk with a height of 20–30 cm, two branches are selected that grow in the same plane from different sides of the tree, the remaining shoots are cut into a ring.
The fan shape of the tree takes up little space, is created within 3 years
Within 3 years after planting, they form the basis of the "fan", selecting correctly directed shoots and tying them to the guides. From the 4th year, it is necessary to carry out summer thinning of new shoots and remove branches directed to or from the fence.
In regions with relatively mild winters, it is recommended, after harvest, to prune the fruiting shoots to young substitutes.
To stimulate growth, fertile branches are cut to replacing young
To maintain good yields, root shoots should be removed annually.
At the age of 15–20 years, the cherry grows old, and its fruiting drops sharply. Rejuvenating cherries is almost impossible. But you can choose one or two offspring from the root growth, located closer to the trunk of the mother tree, and remove the rest. Then the old tree is removed.
In contrast to other fruit trees, cherry does not like turfing of the soil - it helps to reduce growth, die off the tops of shoots, and reduce set formation.
The soil should be kept in a loose, weed-free condition. Strawberries can be planted under mature trees.
In autumn, deep loosening is performed (the depth of processing decreases when moving from the periphery of the near-trunk circle to the trunk). The shovel blade should be positioned along the radius of the trunk circle. In spring and summer, only surface loosening is performed.
Cherry trees respond very "gratefully" to fertilizers. Organic matter is applied in the form of compost or manure in the fall. Simultaneously with them, potassium and phosphorus compounds are used. Nitrogen fertilizers are divided into 2 parts and 1 part is applied in the spring, and the other - at the end of flowering. For young trees, fertilizers are applied only over the area of the trunk circle, and for adults (from 5-6 years old) - and in the aisles.
In summer, weakened trees are fed with slurry diluted in a 1: 5 ratio or bird droppings. It is recommended to carry out liming every 5–6 years with crushed dolomite or lime (0.3–0.5 kg / m2). Fertilizer rates are prescribed depending on the age of the tree:
With winter freezing, it is useful to carry out foliar dressing with a solution of urea (70–75 g per 10 l of water). The first feeding is given after the leaves have bloomed, then, if necessary, repeat after 3-4 weeks.
Very good results are obtained by spraying the leaves with a 0.1% solution of zinc sulfate. When spraying freshly blossomed leaves, the concentration of the solution must be halved.
In whatever form the soil under the trees is contained, the cherry requires watering, which should be especially abundant in dry weather. If there is no rainfall, water the cherries every 10 days at the rate of 2.5 l / m2 for young trees, 3–3.5 l / m2 for new-fruiting trees, and 3.5–4.5 l / m2 for mature trees. If the soil is too dry, do not give too much water at once - the fruits may crack.
In the fall, before the soil freezes, it is necessary to carry out water-charging irrigation, which helps the tree to endure the winter more easily.
In general, remember that cherries are more resistant to drought than waterlogging. Its cherry is harder to bear than the apple tree. In rainy autumn weather, the growth of roots is delayed, they can freeze and even completely die. Non-grafted, self-rooted cherries have a shallower root system and can tolerate excess moisture more easily.
Cherry Youth is quite winter-hardy and does not require special protection for the winter. It is easy to protect cherries from spring frosts (cover with burlap) if they have a fan shape.
Trees growing against the wall can be easily covered with burlap
Poisoned baits can be used against rodents, or thorny materials can be tied around the trunk and main branches. Birds can cause great damage: in winter, some birds (for example, bullfinches) peck at the buds, and in summer - ripe berries. You can save the crop from birds by covering the tree with nets.
Unfortunately, Molodezhnaya cherry is not very resistant to fungal diseases. Consider the most dangerous and common diseases and possible treatment.
Cherry ripening begins on July 20-25. It is advisable not to allow the berries to overripe, as they begin to crumble, and their shelf life decreases. Cherries should be picked together with the stem (without the stem - only for quick processing), in dry weather.
Thanks to their dense pulp, the berries can easily tolerate transportation (it is best for this purpose to pick the berries a week before they are fully ripe).
Frozen cherries can be stored for a very long time and serve as a source of vitamins in winter.
The Molodezhnaya variety belongs to dessert, but the berries can not only be consumed fresh, but also made from them jams, marshmallows, juices, compotes. You can also freeze cherries in plastic containers and enjoy fresh berries in winter.
Cherry Molodezhnaya is a small tree, so it can be grown in small areas. With minimal maintenance, this cherry will respond with a good harvest of delicious berries that can be used in almost any form.
The table below shows the most common diseases of Molodezhnaya cherry and how to combat them.
the leaves acquire a pearlescent color, the appearance of areas of necrosis between the veins, the wood on the cuts becomes brown
protection against mechanical damage and sunburn
bark damage treatment
immediate destruction of infected branches and plants.
Young leaves and shoots turn black and dry, rot and spores form on the fruits, accelerated spread of the disease with high humidity and cold
timely removal of rotten fruits and dead leaves
destruction of affected shoots
treatment with a solution of Bordeaux liquid in the green cone phase (3-4%), at the end of flowering (1%), 2-3 weeks after it. In a rainy year, up to 5–6 treatments are allowed.
The leaves dry out and twist in a spiral, the bark darkens, spots and cracks appear on it, containing the causative agent of the disease
stripping the affected areas of the bark before the buds bloom
Rusty brown spots on the leaves
destruction of fallen leaves thorough weeding of the intermediate host of the disease - spindles
treatment with Bordeaux liquid at a concentration of 1%
The leaves acquire a yellow-red color, then brown dots form on them, white-pink bulges appear on the reverse side, there is an increased shedding of foliage, freezing in winter, cracks in the bark, weakening of the buds.
At the last stage - the bony appearance of the fruit
careful whitewashing of trunks
treatment with Bordeaux liquid before flowering and after harvesting.
The fruits become covered with dull dots, over time - with pale pink bulges.
In the late stage, the berries are mummified
treatment with fungicide Poliram before and after flowering, then after another 15 days
Cherry trees infect pests: leafworm, sawfly, aphid, cherry weevil, shoot moth.
General rules for the preventive treatment of cherry trees from diseases and pests: