Starling song - Sounds emitted by the starling


The song of the starling

The starling, scientific name Sturnus vulgaris of the family Sturnidaeis a bird very present in our cities in more or less numerous groups.They are very talkative animals because they emit sounds almost continuously all day long with a drawling tone alternating with whistles.They are also good imitators as they are able to reproduce the mechanical sounds of the environment surrounding.

Where do pink starlings live?

Pink starlings are singing migratory birds, with a gorgeous plumage style, from a combination of black and pink flowers with a tuft on the head. They live in large flocks, and in some regions they bring tangible benefits, helping a person to fight with locusts, which is able to completely destroy crops in a short time.


Returns and cancellations with the electronic receipt must be made with precise rules, established by the Agency: here's how to make the cancellation.

The electronic receipt from January 1, 2020 has become obligatory for all traders with a VAT number, in relation to’Obligation of electronic storage and telematic transmission of daily payments for all subjects who certify their operations by issuing a receipt or receipt (retailers and similar).

The data must be submitted within 12 days of the reference date, but what happens if you realize you have made a mistake?

Electronic receipt: returns and cancellations

To fulfill the new obligation, merchants can buy an electronic cash register or adapt the one already in use (both operations enjoy tax breaks), or use the free web procedure of the Revenue Agency, on the Invoices and Remuneration portal.

The telematic recorders have functions for the correction of operations carried out before the issuance of the commercial document, or until the electronic storage of the same is confirmed, which takes place at the "closing" of the operation. But if the error is identified later, it is necessary to manage the reversal for any returns or cancellations according to specific provisions, outlined by the technical specifications issued by the Revenue Agency.

It is necessary to use the commercial document for returning goods, or the commercial document for cancellation, making use of the specific functions of the electronic recorder in use.

L'amount indicated in the amendment document it must not be negative, but positive: since it is a reversal, it will contribute to reducing the fees. It is also important that the cancellation or return document explicitly mentions the original commercial document that must be reversed, in whole or in part.

The telematic recorder must therefore allow the search in the permanent detailed memory and, in the event of an unsuccessful search, the manual entry of the reference data of the main document.

Data transmitted to the tax authorities

In the Fees section of the Revenue Agency, the following data will be indicated:

  • Sales, with revenue equal to the total taxable amount of the commercial documents issued
  • Returns, with any reversals of revenue, equal to the total taxable amount of the commercial return documents issued
  • Cancel, with any reversals of revenue, equal to the total taxable amount of the commercial cancellation documents issued
  • VAT resulting from the tax unbundling of the fees, net of returns and cancellations.


Below, the indications of the Revenue Agency on how to remedy a possible incorrect transmission of the electronic fees.

The user who makes an incorrect transmission of the fees must follow the following procedure:

  • access the Invoices and Fees portal
  • go to the "Monitoring of receipts of transmitted files" section of the Consultation area
  • access "Received electronic payment file"
  • identify the wrong transmission
  • click on the "Abnormal transmission" box
  • fill in the "Reason" field.

The Inland Revenue also invites you to call / write to the installer to change the settings of the electronic recorder in order to properly settle the tax.

Starling song - Sounds emitted by the starling

There is no doubt, even the most distracted or disinterested know that spring is the main season to hear birdsong. Not everyone, however, perhaps knows why birds sing. The purpose of this post is therefore to address a fascinating but complex issue in a simple way.

All birds have a repertoire of vocalizations to communicate information about dangers, food, sex, group travel and for many other purposes.

The song of birds in general, but not always, is a prerogative of the male sex addicted to androgen hormones. The song consists of a series of sounds produced by the syringe, a particular organ placed between the trachea and the bronchi, which vibrates in the same way as our vocal cords when the air passes.

Virtually all birds communicate with sounds: from the beating of the jaws of storks to the melody of a nightingale.

White stork Ciconia ciconia

Woodpeckers, on the other hand, communicate more frequently by tapping on the trunks with their beak.

Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major

The Common Pheasant, in addition to the hoarse song, is also characterized by shaking its wings with a roar.

Common pheasant
Phasianus colchicus

The song in the true sense of the word belongs mainly to the Passerines and among these the Turdids are the most melodious. Suffice it to say that the song of the nightingale is described in the dictionary as follows:
Nightingale: Small bird with reddish-brown plumage has a melodious and penetrating song with an exceptional variety of warbling - Phrase: Singing like a nightingale, with a melodious, clear and sweet voice.

Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos

The prerogative of singing belongs to the male, who during the reproductive season invests a lot of time in this activity that carries with it a double meaning: singing for a long time demonstrates to the female her excellent state of health and also demonstrates the favorable food availability of her territory. . Furthermore, with its territorial song, it warns other rival males to stay away.

The Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, normally lives in the thick of the wood, in spring it settles in good view while it sings to delimit its territory.

Birds, however, vocalize for a variety of other reasons. For example, the songs are used to maintain contact with the female, especially during the hatching and rearing of the offspring. The males settle in a clearly visible place, from which they check that no predator approaches and thus communicate with the song to the partner that everything is quiet. If, on the other hand, any danger approaches, the singing turns into alarm sounds. It is the tone, frequency and duration that specify the urgency of the message.

Blackbird: I sing

Blackbird: alarm

During the non-reproductive season, the singing transforms into contact vocalizations, especially in the gregarious species. Other sounds are emitted to alert other members of the group in the presence of dangers and act as alarms.

The Long-tailed tit, Aegithalos caudatus, is very gregarious during the winter season. He keeps in touch with the members of his group through his characteristic call.

If for the melody of the song, according to many, the most beautiful belongs to the nightingale, the wren holds the primacy considering the ratio of small build that characterizes it and the power of the sound emitted.

Wren Troglodytes troglodytes, (video by Luciano Mingarelli)

Being a real language composed of sounds of various frequencies, the song undergoes the dialectal influence depending on a limited geographical area. In fact, birds not only know how to recognize a member of their own species but are also able to understand if it is a "foreigner".

Song production is driven by acoustic memory traces contained in the brain that encode species-specific characteristics and enable the learning process.
Ethologists have established that young birds learn their songs in four stages:
The first two phases are called silent as young people listen to learn from adults.
In the first phase which lasts from two to twelve months, depending on the species, the young learn the structure, the step and the variations.
In the second phase, which lasts up to eight months, they learn syllables or phrases.
In the third phase they begin to listen to themselves comparing their performances with what they have learned up to that moment.
In the last phase (called "crystallization") the phrases and songs are stabilized and accompanied by small personalizations that transform the young into adults recognizable by the other members of the same species.

In some species, during this learning phase, a phenomenon of imitation of singing, noises or real human vocalizations occurs, as in the case of parrots. Other birds such as the jay, the greenish reed, the blackcap and many others have the habit of imitating the song of other species.
Why this happens is still unknown but it is of interest to contemporary studies.

Personally, I was also deceived during my winter outing by a Starling, the creator of a precise imitation of the singing of the oriole. However, since the latter was spending the winter in Africa at that time, I inquired curiously until I discovered that he was indeed the good imitator and not the original.

The Starling Sturnus vulgaris is one of the most common imitators of the song of other birds.

For birdwatchers it is very important to know how to recognize birdsong. Often hidden in thick vegetation, their presence is signaled only by singing: an example is the river nightingale, very vociferous but practically invisible .

River nightingale Cettia cetti

Let's put ourselves to the test: on the Vogelwarte website, a nice multi-level game to recognize songs LINK

Even the Italian language underlines the extreme peculiarity of some bird songs by associating a specific verb to a species, such as the swallow that flutters or the croaking of the crow.

Rondine Hirundo rustica

How much do the birds sing? Researcher Hans-Heiner Bergmann and his team checked 23 male finch over a day. The record was reached by a male with 4546 stanzas, while the average is 2200 stanzas per day, equal to about 1 hour and a half per day. (source vogelwarte)

Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs

Man has always paid particular attention to birdsong. Just think of the widespread practice of imprisonment in a cage to be able to enjoy their singing. Common for this purpose is the breeding of the canary which has already been discussed on this blog LINK

Many musicians have tried to transform the songs of birds into instrumental concerts, including in the 16th century Clement Janequin wrote a "descriptive" chanson entitled "Le chant des oiseaux".

Piece taken from Le chant des oiseaux

From the music and environment blog, I report the following list of composers who have written, with both comic and descriptive and evocative intentions, referring to birds are:

Adriano Banchieri: bestial counterpoint to the mind
Girolamo Frescobaldi: Capriccio above Cucho
Bernardo Pasquini: Touched with Cucco's joke
François Couperin: in "L'art de toucher le Clavecin" pieces dedicated to the nightingale, the canary, the blackcap, the finch, the cuckoo
Antonio Vivaldi: Il Cardellino (concert for flute and strings) and L'Estate from Le Quattro Stagioni
Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphony N ° 6 "Pastorale, second movement Nightingale, Quail and Cuckoo respectively imitated by flute, oboe and clarinet
Franz Joseph Haydn: Symphony N ° 38 "La Poule"
Richard Wagner: motif of the Bird de Bosco in Siegfried
Camille Saint Saëns: The Swan, Roosters and Hens, Aviary, The Cuckoo at the bottom of the Wood, in The Carnival of the Animals
Igor Strawinsky: Le Rossignol The FirebirduHeitor Villa-Lobos: Uiraparù
Maurice Ravel: Oiseaux Tristes

The musical personality of the twentieth century who however studied and used the singing of birds not with comic or simply descriptive purposes, but considering them a means of approaching nature intended as a primal source of sound is Oliver Messiaen, French organist and composer who lived between 1908 and 1992. After a period of technical-philosophical studies on interval and rhythmic modes, at the beginning of the 1950s Messiaen turned his attention to "the greatest musicians". Already in past works we find the presence of these materials used as a relaxing oasis in a more strictly speculative context (eg Choeur des alouettes in the Sortie of the Messe de la Pentecôte). Le Merle noire for Of and flute (1950), Reveil des oiseaux for Pf, and orch (1953), Oiseaux exotiques for Pf and instruments (1956), Catalog d'oiseaux for Piano (1956 - 58) are some of the titles in which used the songs of birds. "For me - says Messiaen - the only authentic music has always existed in the noises of nature. The harmonious sound of the wind in the trees, the rhythm of the sea waves, the timbre of raindrops, broken branches, the collision of stones , the various cries of animals are for me the real music ". But Messiaen does not make "naturism", he does not seek descriptive or onomatopoeic effects, but uses melodic and rhythmic elements transforming them into the structural framework of his compositions.

A popular nursery rhyme says:

Winter is gone,
April is gone
May is back
to the cuckoo song:

Cu-cù, cu-cù, April is gone,
Maggio returned to the song of the cu-cù.

Cuckoo Cuculus canorus

It must have been this song of spring that stimulated Franz Ketterer, a German clockmaker born in Schönwald in the Black Forest, who in 1738 apparently invented the cuckoo clock, inserting a chime consisting of two flutes powered by a bellows imitating the call of the cuckoo.

Curiosity: the hen, imitator of birdsong

Thanks to Maurizio Alberti for the musical advice.

What drives the movements of starlings?

Even for those who live in the city it is not difficult to observe the choreographies designed by the people in the sky flocks of starling (and forgive us the Calembour), a gregarious bird widespread almost all over the world. But what drives the starlings in their movements? How do they coordinate with flight mates? In a study recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, three British researchers fromWarwick University suggest that these birds they move in order to reach the maximum density at which they still have a good view of the surrounding space. This happens when the birds receive the light from many directions, a condition known as "marginal opacity”, And it is therefore the changes in the relationship between shadow and light that tell birds how to fly.

Models that had previously attempted to explain the flight of transfers they hypothesized an exchange of information between birds flying nearby. According to the researchers of theUniversity of Warwick, however, local interactions alone would not be able to explain how they do it flocks to check its own density.

For this, the British scientists decided to test their hypothesis based on marginal opacity using a computer simulation. Virtual starlings have therefore been programmed to follow the closest companion and move towards the area flock from which they have access to the greatest amount of information. The results of the experiment showed that programmed in this way, the virtual starlings unite in compact groups and move in a way that is superimposable to that of real birds.

References: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences doi: 10.1073 / pnas.1402202111

Who is required to issue the receipt?

For reasons of fiscal caution, proof of payment is required by means of either a receipt or a tax receipt (Quittungsvorlage: So einfach schreiben Sie Quittungen): the choice is completely free since the documents are equivalent. The subjects required to issue the tax receipt are the retail traders and the like: for which we refer for example to bars, pharmacies, restaurants, hairdressers, hotels, and so on. Therefore, they are always VAT taxable persons who carry out taxable operations for which an invoice is not mandatory, unless it is explicitly requested by the customer. The receipt must be issued to the person making the purchase or who uses the service and bears the cost.

The subjects required to issue the tax document are divided into two categories depending on the type of activity they carry out. In fact, the following are distinguished:

a. retail trade: the sale or transfer of goods in places open to the public which can take place through automatic machines, or by correspondence, or at home or, finally, in itinerant form

b. subjects similar to retail trade, that is, those who perform performance

- hotel and food and drink administration, which are carried out in public establishments

- for the transport of people as well as vehicles and luggage accompanying them

- services in the exercise of activities that operate within premises open to the public, or in itinerant form or, again, at the domicile of customers

- securities custody and other services rendered by companies or credit institutions and by financial or trust companies.

The premises open to the public required to issue the receipt are for example:

  • Cafe
  • restaurants
  • hotels
  • beauty salons and hairdressers 'and barbers' salons
  • pastry shops
  • laundries
  • car repair shops
  • tire specialists
  • retail products.

Changes introduced with Legislative Decree no. 127/2015: the digital receipt

However, the 2017 tax receipt could look different. Starting from 1 January 2017in fact, retailers and artisans who have opted for electronic storage and telematic transmission to the Revenue Agency of the data of the daily fees, are no longer required to issue the paper receipt.

The only premise is that they are in possession of a telematic recorder, a novelty in the registration of tax payments: precisely these are cash registers that allow both to record data in permanent and unalterable memories, and to electronically seal the information and send it electronically to the Inland Revenue at the end of the working day. The cash registers already in operation can be converted into telematics, while those in production are already prepared for telematic use. The merchant must issue the paper receipt only if the customer has explicitly requested it.

However, the trader is obliged to issue a business document representing the warranty rights of the item sold or the service offered. By indicating the buyer's tax ID above, the document may have tax value for deduct or deduct charges relevant for the purposes of personal income tax.

Taking advantage of the telematic transmission of tax data relating to payments is a considerable advantage for traders, in fact there are two forms of savings: primarily the issuance of the receipt (or receipt) tax and then the recording of the daily fees, because both are responsible for the automatic operations of the electronic recorder.

Subjects exempted from the issuance obligation

As in other cases, there are also exceptions regarding the obligation to issue the receipt: there are in fact some subjects who are exempt from this obligation. We summarize them in the following table, also present on the page dedicated to receipt on the Guardia di Finanza website:

Sales or exempted services

Exempted subjects

Video: Ψαρόνια σμήνος, επιδρομή σε ελαιώνα.

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