Sowing sunflower - optimal timing, seeding rate, seeding depth and planting methods


When growing sunflower on an industrial scale, its correct sowing is of great importance, and not only the planting time is taken into account, but also the seeding rate of sunflower, the distance between the rows, tillage, as well as the preliminary preparation of seeds. The combination of these factors directly affects the yield of sunflower seeds.

Preparing soil and seeds for sowing

Modern sunflower sowing technologies are aimed at:

  • getting an earlier harvest,
  • increase in yield,
  • improving the quality of seeds,
  • saving money and labor.

When growing sunflower on an industrial scale, its correct sowing is of great importance.

When choosing a place for sowing a sunflower, crop rotation must be observed. Preferred precursors: corn, legumes, spring wheat or barley. After alfalfa, sugar beets and beans, planting sunflowers is not recommended due to the fact that these crops dramatically dry out the land.

Sunflower sowing video

Before you start sowing sunflower, the land is cultivated. In the presence of perennial weeds in the field (bindweed, lettuce, sedge, thistle), first they start plowing stubble to a depth of six centimeters using disc tools. When the weeds germinate, the soil is cultivated with plow-plowing plows to a depth of ten centimeters. After weed control, 25 cm plowing is carried out in October. To increase soil moisture in winter, snow retention is carried out on the field. Spring treatments include soil harrowing and cross-plowing cultivation.

To provide favorable conditions for the growth of sunflower, mineral fertilizers and manure are applied for plowing, which guarantees a significant increase in yield.

Sunflower seeds are sorted before sowing, leaving the highest quality, large ones. Mostly for industrial purposes, zoned sunflower hybrids are grown with high germination rates, productivity, disease resistance, drought and lodging.

Sunflower seeds are sorted before sowing, leaving the highest quality, large

Pre-sowing soaking of sunflower seeds for fourteen hours in a solution of potassium permanganate helps to increase the yield. A good effect is provided by the incrustation of seeds with a film-forming composition with the addition of growth stimulants, trace elements, fungicides and insecticides.

Sunflower sowing time, seeding rate and seeding depth

Due to the thick, lignified skin, sunflower seeds swell slowly, so it is better to sow them early. Moreover, young seedlings normally tolerate low temperatures. Sowing dates are determined depending on the air temperature, soil readiness, moisture content in it and other conditions. The most friendly shoots can be achieved if sowing is carried out twelve days after the spring cultivation of the land, at an air temperature of +15 degrees and a soil temperature at a depth of 8 cm from +10 degrees.

Seeds of high-oil varieties of sunflower germinate well and germinate at soil temperatures of +8 degrees, if they are planted earlier, the seeds may partially lose their germination capacity, and the seedlings will turn out to be sparse.

Sowing of sunflower seeds is carried out at different depths depending on the moisture and temperature of the soil.

The seeding rate is determined by the seed size and the planned seedling density, as well as other factors:

  • when growing sunflower for silage, the seeding rate is from 25 to 40 kg / ha (continuous row sowing) or from 15 to 20 kg / ha (wide-row sowing);
  • when cultivated for seeds - from 6 to 10 kg / ha;
  • if herbicides are applied to the soil, the seeding rate is increased by 15%;
  • with the harrowing every day, the seeding rate is increased by 25%.

Sowing of sunflower seeds is carried out at different depths depending on the moisture and temperature of the soil, on the size of the seeds and the energy of their germination. Each nest is filled with two or three grains. Small-seeded hybrids should be sown to a depth of about 5 cm, large seeds in arid regions are planted by 8 cm, in humid regions - by 6 cm.Grains should not be sown deeper than 10 cm, as this will lead to sparse seedlings, and therefore to a decrease in yield ...

Optimum row spacing when sowing sunflower

Adequate distance allows the sunflower to develop quickly and guarantees a good harvest

Various methods of sowing sunflower are known: wide-row, dotted, square-nested. With the wide-row method, the grains are sown in rows with row spacings from 25 cm to 80 cm.Moreover, among some experts there is an opinion that it is quite enough to make small distances between the rows, since the plants still do not completely use nutrients and water from the row spacings, and the soil dries out from - due to insufficient shade from sunflowers.

With wide-row sowing with 30 cm row spacing, it is proposed to increase the yield of sunflower by introducing herbicides to protect seedlings from weeds, and by growing undersized hybrids that will have enough sunlight with such a small "personal area".

When square-nesting fit sunflower with a distance of 70x70 cm, the seeds are located at the corners of an imaginary square, so that crops can be processed in the longitudinal and in the forward direction. In addition, plants germinate faster with this method, and the gaps allow you to fully mechanize all the necessary work on sunflower care.

Video about continuous sowing of domestic sunflower varieties with a thin seeding rate (no-till)

Currently widespread dotted fit sunflower 70x30 cm. It differs from a wide-row one in that the seeds are sown evenly, at a certain distance from each other. A sufficient distance allows the sunflower to develop quickly and guarantees a good harvest.

Seeds are sown in the fields using pneumatic seeders or precision seeders. Configurable seed drills at 6 km / h ensure precise seed spacing and seed savings.

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Seedling planting calendar 2021

January is outside the window, but spring is not far off. Already the day has begun to slowly increase, therefore, it is time to think about planting seedlings, especially since there is not much time left. Often, gardeners think that this is a simple matter, but in reality it is not: knowledge is needed. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the calendar of planting seedlings in 2021.

1. Stages of planting seedlings2. Timing for sowing3. When to plant seedlings in 20214. Landings on the lunar calendar


Sunflower 'Russian size'. Sowing, germination test, the appearance of the first true leaves

I started testing Russian size sunflower on May 26 with looking at the package and soaking the seeds.

The packaging is attractive and sealed. On the back of the package there is information on agricultural technology.


Start

The tested seeds (weight 1.2 grams), harvest 2019, were packed on January 14, 2020, lot no. 1061 = seeds fresh. The expiration date of the seeds is indicated on the package, it is 4 years.


Downside

There are 8 seeds in a package, they are striped and large enough, I decided to plant everything:


Seeds

Soaked the seeds in water overnight to hatch faster:


Soaked

On May 27, she sowed Russian size sunflower seeds for seedlings in a greenhouse. Greenhouse made of polycarbonate, oriented from west to east. During the day, the temperature rose above +25 degrees, at night it dropped to +3 (and possibly lower). A spunbond with a density of 40 was stretched over the plants, protected from direct sunlight during the day (only from above). On the sides, the spandbond was lowered overnight to protect the plants from a possible nighttime cold snap.

The soil in the greenhouse is an ordinary garden one, it was prepared in the fall. Our soil is sandy loam, many years ago analysis showed: acidity - 5.80 phosphorus - more than 25.0 potassium - 20. When sowing, nothing was added to the soil. Made a groove, spilled water:


Landing

And laid out 8 seeds:


Landing

The fact that when planting a sunflower it would be necessary to make deeper furrows in order for the roots to develop better, I remembered when the shoots appeared. Let them rise longer, but then 3-meter giants would be more stable.

The first two shoots (and one hint of it) appeared by June 1:


Seedlings

On June 2, there were already 5 seedlings:


Seedlings

By June 6, 7 out of 8 seedlings appeared. Those plants that crawled out earlier had real leaves:


The first leaves

On June 8, the Russian size sunflower was quite vigorous and felt great in the greenhouse:


7 pieces

Let's calculate the germination rate:
Planted 8 seeds - 100%
7 seeds have risen - X%
X = 87.5%
Germination rate = 87.5%

The sunflower has grown enough, there is a steady plus on the street - it's time to plant the Russian size in the garden.
Thanks for attention!


Sowing dates depending on the region

Since each region has its own agro-climatic features, the planting days of culture in a particular region will be different.

  1. Middle lane (Moscow region). This region is characterized by variable weather conditions. But special varieties for the middle lane give a harvest before the onset of frost. Since the optimal air temperature for planting seedlings in open ground is + 12 ° C, and this is mid-May, the seeds are sown at the end of April.
  2. Southern regions. If it is necessary to harvest in this region early, then seedlings are planted. Seeds are sown in late March or early April. Then, in May, you can transfer the plant to the garden.
  3. Ural and Siberia. These are cold regions with short summers. Seeds are sown in May, and seedlings are transplanted into the ground in June, when daylight hours increase. It is not worth planting varieties with a long ripening period, since they do not have time to gain the necessary ripeness.

The temperature for warming up the soil should be from + 10 ° С. The growing season is 2.5-4 months. In the northern regions, frosts come early, so early varieties are planted. Then they will have time to ripen before the cold weather.


Growing rules

Despite the simplicity of growing green manure crops, some rules must be followed to get a good harvest:

  • Siderat must not be grown in front of a cultivated plant belonging to the same family. For example, before planting cabbage, it is forbidden to plant mustard or other cruciferous herbs.
  • From the whole variety of green manure plants, you need to choose those that are suitable for the composition of the soil and the type of vegetable grown.
  • Only seedlings can be planted on a bed with young siderates. If you plan to sow vegetable seeds, then the helpers need to be cut off.
  • Cutting the green mass must be carried out before the buds are laid. Coarsening of the stems should not be allowed.
  • In dry summers, it is recommended to water the plantings frequently to help humus formation.
  • To comply with the principles of crop rotation, green manure crops must be rotated.


Landing in open ground

The structure of the sunflower seed is unique and needs to be calibrated. Then use a 1% manganese solution to etch them. This should take 14 hours. Then make an infusion of garlic and onions, in which the seeds must be kept all night. To do this, you will need garlic (100 g) and onion skins, as well as two liters of hot water (boiling water). This mixture must be infused for 24 hours. Thanks to this tincture, the seeds will not be spoiled by pathogens, and they will not be affected by pests and rodents, at least for the first time.

The soil for sowing a hybrid of a sunflower and a normal plant must be sufficiently moist. Planting depth is 8 cm. Place 2 seeds in each nest. If the sunflowers are large, then the distance between them should be up to a meter, and if the middle ones - up to 60 cm. If you adhere to a sufficient distance, then the new crop will have large seeds.

It is also worth understanding what can be planted in the field after you have harvested the sunflower crop. Since this plant tends to deplete the soil, planting vegetables after it will be pointless. In this case, legumes are suitable, in the form of soybeans, beans or peas. Thanks to legumes, the soil will rest and be saturated with nitrogen. After a year of growing legumes, cucumbers can be planted in the same place.


Types and varieties of cosmos with photos and names

Gardeners cultivate only 3 types of cosmos, with 1 of them being perennial, and the remaining 2 are annual. As a result of the painstaking work of breeders, a large number of hybrids and varieties of this flowering plant were born.

Cosmos bipinnatus

This herb is an annual plant. It comes from the mountainous regions of Mexico. The height of highly branched erect shoots can vary from 0.8 to 1.5 m. The leaf plates dissected into filamentous lobes are outwardly similar to the foliage of dill. In diameter, the inflorescences reach 7-10 centimeters, they can be solitary or be part of large corymbose inflorescences. The marginal flowers are colored red, purple, white or pink. In this case, tubular flowers in the middle of the inflorescence form a small disc of yellow color. This species is distinguished by lush flowering, and it also gives excellent self-seeding. It has been cultivated since 1799. Today this type is most popular with flower growers. Varieties:

  1. Dazzler... During the opening, the baskets are painted in a deep red color, but after a while they change it to crimson.
  2. Purity... The shoots are very flexible, and the inflorescences are snow-white in color.
  3. Kosmeya undersized the Sonata series, which includes the Sonata Pink Blush variety. The pink inflorescences around the middle have a red rim.

Sulfur-yellow kosmeya (Cosmos sulphureus)

This annual species naturally occurs in Latin America. It is distinguished by its warmth-loving nature. On the surface of erect branched shoots there is pubescence, they reach a height of about 150 cm. The leaf plates are twice or three times dissected into feathery wide lanceolate lobes, which are pointed towards the apices. The color of the reed flowers is yellow-golden or orange. The yellow tubular flowers have protruding dark anthers, and the tips are orange in color. Cultivated since 1799 Varieties:

  1. Bilbo... Semi-double baskets are orange in color.
  2. Crest Lemon... The height of the bush is about 0.5 m. The color of the inflorescences is yellow-lemon.
  3. Diablo... The baskets have a fiery red color.

Blood-red cosmos (Cosmos atrosanguineus)

This species is perennial, and in natural conditions it can be found in Mexico. This species is also called black cosme, because the inflorescences are painted in a very dark shade of red, while the velvety flowers have a chocolate smell. The composition of complex leaf plates includes an unpaired number of leaves. This plant is also very thermophilic, in this regard, experienced gardeners recommend planting flowers in pots that can be brought into the room during winter. When grown in open soil, the cosmeya will need to be covered. Today, terry varieties are especially popular. The most popular are the following varieties:

  1. Brightness... The plant is distinguished by lush flowering. Terry inflorescences have a rich color.
  2. Antiquity... This type of compact cosme is unique.At first, the inflorescences are painted in the color of Burgundy wine, which eventually changes to salmon with a bronze tint.
  3. Double click rose bon-bon... Terry large flowers have a pink color, they stand for a long time in the cut.



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