Fennel - one of the world's favorite spice plants. Distinguish fennel ordinary, or dill (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.), and vegetable fennel or sweet, Italian (Foeniculum Vulgare ssp. Vulgare (Miller) Thell.)
Fennel is a perennial plant of the celery (umbrella) family, originating from the Mediterranean countries. In the south of Ukraine, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the countries of Central Asia, and quite rarely in central Russia, ordinary fennel is widespread.
It is a perennial herbaceous plant with a height of 1-2 m, similar to dill. The stem is erect, rounded or slightly furrowed in cross-section, strongly branched. The leaves are large, pinnately dissected, green. Yellow flowers are collected in an umbrella. The fruit is a ribbed dvussemyanka, easily disintegrating into halves. The root is powerful, fusiform, thickened.
This species uses greens for food, like dill, seasoning with it meat dishes, salads, soups, and also seeds. Fennel fruits are used in baking for the preparation of some types of bread, they are sprinkled on buns, added to pies, puddings, cookies. As a seasoning, fennel goes well with fish, meat and vegetable dishes, and is a good spice for sauces and marinades.
For centuries, fennel has been used in medicine to treat stomach upsets, regulate bowel movements, get rid of flatulence, and more. Dill water, known to many, is a fennel product.
Unfortunately, vegetable fennel is very little known in Russia. True, in megacities in the vegetable departments of hypermarkets you can already buy fennel, but it is still a secret behind seven seals. But this is the most valuable vegetable from among the "yellow-green" suppliers of beta-carotene. It is "quoted" at the level of parsley and coriander. It is grown all over the world, but in Russia so far it is almost not.
Vegetable fennel is vitamin C (22-90 mg2), carotene (2.6-10 mg2), rutin (8-9 mg2), mineral salts, sugar, proteins, fiber. In vegetable fennel, both roots and young shoots are used for food; the main thing in it is the thickened, fleshy bases of the petioles, growing together into the so-called "heads of cabbage". They are sold in hypermarkets.
Heads of cabbage are used in raw, boiled, baked, stewed form, and the roots are also stewed, boiled, but more on that later.
Until recently, there were no varietal fennel seeds - at least in Russia. Mixed varieties were grown, populations obtained from varieties Florentiysky, Italian large, Pepper, Ogorodny, Bologna, etc. In the "State Register of Varieties 2006" 7 varieties of vegetable fennel and one hybrid have already been introduced.
The first was the Udalets variety (1996), created at VNIISSOK. The rest of the varieties have been introduced since 2000: Luzhnikovsky Semko (2000), F1 Rudi (2000), Aroma (2002), Leader (2003), Autumn Handsome (2003), Soprano (2004). ), Corvette (2005). However, gardeners have access to mostly seeds of the Udalets (VNIISSOK), Luzhnikovsky Semko and Soprano (Poisk) varieties.
Judging by the years of introduction to the "State Register ...", the interest in this culture is obvious.
Growing fennel is easy. He prefers neutral, highly fertile loamy soils. The best predecessors are cabbage, cucumber, i.e. unrelated crops, under which increased doses of organic matter were introduced.
Since autumn, 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt (on heavy soils - 30 g of ammonium sulfate, or 20 g of urea) are introduced under deep digging per 1 m².
Fennel is usually grown in an annual culture. He is picky about light, moisture and soil fertility. Fennel is cold-resistant, therefore it is sown in early spring at an air temperature of 6 ... 10 ° C, or before winter. For the winter, fennel crops require shelter with peat, humus, sawdust, etc.
Small seeds: 1000 seeds - 3.0-6.0 g; 1 g - 180-350 seeds. 0.8-1.0 g of seeds are sown per 1 m². They retain their germination capacity for 2-3 years. The seeding depth is 1.5-2.0 cm. Sowing is ordinary with row spacing of 45 cm, or two-line (50x20 cm) or five-line. Seeds sprout slowly - 14-20 days. To designate the rows, lighthouse crops are added to the seeds: mustard, watercress, lettuce.
A week after germination, the fennel crops are loosened in the aisles to a depth of 5-6 cm. After 5-10 days after germination, the plants are weeded, removing the lighthouse crops, thinned out by 15-20 cm in a row and foliar feeding is carried out. In the North-West of the Russian Federation, vegetable fennel is best grown through seedlings.
As the fleshy bases of the stalks of vegetable fennel thicken, the hilling of plants is carried out in several stages. For greens, fennel plants are removed when they reach a height of 20 cm, before flowering. They are eaten fresh or dried, salted, etc.
Vegetable fennel heads are harvested when they reach a diameter of 8-10 cm together with leaves. The yield of "heads of cabbage", shoots and roots is usually 1.2-1.6 kg / m². For winter storage, plants are harvested before the onset of frost with roots, and added in greenhouses or basements.
When fennel is cultivated in a 2-3-year-old culture, it blooms in July-August, the fruits ripen in the warm summer in September. They are used for sowing for 2-3 years, or in home cooking, canning, etc.
Now about the main thing. Alas, many Russians not only do not know how to grow fennel, although the seeds have already appeared on the market; but they don't even know how to cook it. But for all enlightened humanity, fennel is an ordinary favorite vegetable.
I offer my recipe:
For 4 servings, take 400-600 g of medium fat pork (neck), cut into pieces, fry in vegetable oil over high heat. Wash 4 heads of cabbage, dry and chop into pieces 2-3 cm long, fry in vegetable oil for 3-5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Put the meat and fennel in the pata in layers, season with fried onions, spices to taste and simmer until the meat is tender. 3-5 minutes before being ready, season with crushed or dried garlic to taste. Garnish with fennel, cilantro, parsley, basil, etc. before serving.
And here are the recipes that we managed to collect for those readers who are interested in a new promising crop, and they will start growing it:
Chop or coarsely grate a couple of heads of fennel. Grate apple with sourness (preferably green) with peel. Mix the ingredients, add lemon juice, salt, herbs (parsley, cilantro, etc.) to taste.
Cut the heads of cabbage into slices, chop the green onions, add salt, pour over with vegetable oil, sprinkle with lemon juice and mix. Season with mayonnaise before serving.
Cut green shoots of fennel, rinse, dry. Cut a head of fennel (200 g) into strips, put in boiling chicken broth (300 ml), add one chopped onion, salt and spices to taste. Cover the dishes and cook over low heat until softened - about 30 minutes. Cool the soup a little, rub through a sieve, add 150 ml of milk and 1 tsp. lemon juice. Boil.
Mix 3 tbsp. l. yogurt (no additives) or cream, one egg yolk, a little soup. Beat the mixture and pour into the soup, cooled to 70 ° C.
To prepare croutons from three slices of bread, cut off the crusts, cut the bread into cubes. Heat a couple of garlic cloves in oil, let it brew, then remove the garlic with a slotted spoon, put the bread in butter, let it soak, then take it out and dry it on a napkin.
Garnish the warmed soup with herbs and serve with croutons.
In four medium-sized (portioned) fish (pike perch, mackerel, sea bass, etc.), cut the skin crosswise. Grind 6-8 plants (stems and leaves) of fennel. Put the fish on double folded foil and fill (2 tablespoons each) with fennel. Place the remaining fennel between the fish. Sprinkle the dish with vegetable oil and the juice of half a lemon. Fry over an open fire or grill, turn once. Salt, spices to taste. Serve the cooked fish, sprinkle with fennel and garnish with lemon wedges.
Chop the cabbage finely, stew until softened with butter and onions, season with slightly fried flour, pour in a little broth. Before serving, season with sour cream, garnish with chopped fennel leaves or other herbs.
Peel four small heads of fennel, wash and cut in half. Set aside the remaining greens. Peel a couple of small onions and chop finely.
Heat 2 tbsp in a saucepan. olive oil and sauté the onion in it until golden brown. Add chopped fennel, 1/4 teaspoon fennel seeds, 180 ml dry white wine to a saucepan and simmer over low heat for about 15 minutes. Then salt the fennel, pepper with white pepper and put on preheated plates.
Pour the juice of 1 lemon into the remaining broth, add 2 tbsp. tomato paste, bring to a boil, boil for a few minutes and pour the fennel on plates with the resulting sauce. Garnish with finely chopped fennel herbs.
Large peeled shrimps (24 pieces) lightly salt and pepper with ground black pepper. Melt 4 tablespoons in a flat saucepan. butter, lightly fry the shrimps in it, pour in 2 tbsp. aniseed liqueur and set on fire. Then remove the shrimp from the saucepan.
Cut 200 g of fennel into strips and lightly sauté it in a saucepan along with 2 tbsp. chopped shallots. Pour in 1/4 l of fish broth, add a pinch of saffron, mix well and evaporate the liquid by about half. Pour in 200 g of sour cream, bring to a boil and cook for another 5 minutes.
Peel one tomato, remove the seeds, and cut it into small pieces. Place the tomato slices along with 1 tablespoon of chopped fennel and shrimp in the prepared sauce and reheat.
Salt the finished dish and add ground black and cayenne pepper.
Bon appetit and good health!
General Director of Poisk-Petersburg LLC,
candidate of agricultural sciences
Beds filled with starworm indicate fertile and well-moistened soil, but its insufficient permeability, strong compaction and poor drainage, and, possibly, acidification of the site. Therefore, first of all, if you want to get rid of woodlice, you need to try to influence the condition of the soil in the garden.
If the soil in the beds is too acidic, it needs to be neutralized - this, by the way, will only benefit most garden crops. This must be done with the help of so-called deoxidizing agents - wood ash, chalk, hydrated lime (fluff), dolomite flour. The application rates of such lime-containing preparations depend on the composition of the soil and the level of its acidity and are calculated individually each time. The most "strong" deoxidizers are applied only in the spring after the snow melts or in the fall for digging. they can harm vegetative plants - such agents include, for example, fluff. Other substances such as ash or dolomite act more gently - they can be added to the soil all year round.
Also, some siderates - phacelia, white mustard, sweet clover and alfalfa can help to gently deoxidize the soil. With proper crop rotation, you can even do without the use of minerals on the site altogether.
If the soil in your beds is constantly waterlogged, you should think about constructing a drainage system on the site - a high level of groundwater and regular flooding will be of use to few garden and vegetable garden crops.
As a preventive measure for the appearance of woodlice on the site, you can advise to observe crop rotation, weed the plantings on time, do not forget to loosen the soil as deeply as possible (to deepen woodlice seeds) or use mulch (in the beds - grass or straw, in the aisles - black film), do not give the beds are empty (in the place of the early harvest, you can plant other fast-growing crops or green manure).
If you already have woodlice thickets, you will have to look for effective weed control measures.
For starters, you can try to weed out the starfish. This must be done regularly and carefully, while we must not forget that it easily multiplies even by pieces of stems, therefore, after weeding with a pitchfork, you need to raise and sift the soil so as not to leave even small parts of the weed in it. Not in one weeding or even after a week, but over time, you will be able to significantly reduce the amount of weed. Of course, you should not leave the weeded greens of the starlet scattered around the site; send it better to the compost heap.
As the most serious means of controlling woodlice, if it cannot be removed from the site by any other means, use permitted herbicides - Zenkor Ultra, Lazurite, Fighter, Clorite (spraying vegetative weeds before sowing crops, 2-5 days before the emergence of crop shoots or in the fall in the post-harvest period).
Pesticides recommended in many sources for these purposes Roundup, Tornado and Hurricane prohibited for use on the territories of private household plots due to their high toxicity!
Don't you like onions? You just don't know how to cook it! The taste of onions can also be unusual if stewed well over low heat. Be sure to take note of this recipe and cook onion pie with sour cream.
Today Ruslan Senichkin prepared a dish that made him cry. It is not surprising, because the main ingredient of this dish is onion, and the dish itself is onion quiche.
Onion pie is a safe bet for a successful lunch or dinner. Valetina Khamaiko shared her recipe for onion pie. See the video for the cooking method.
The easiest and fastest pie in the world is taten with caramelized onions. Caramelized onions - gives this dish an unusual and very delicate taste. An excellent starter for French-style first courses.
No autumn in Germany is complete without the Zwiebelkuchen onion pie. All German hostesses bake it at least once during the rainy season. Despite the name of the pie, onions are prepared in such a way that they do not dominate the pie at all. Its taste is soft, and the pie itself is juicy and tender.
More than 200 species of this cultivated plant are grown today all over the world. Its fruits are rich in proteins and vitamins (A, B and E), macro and microelements (calcium, magnesium, fluorine and others) and other useful substances. Although beans are high in calories, they are considered a dietary product. Even ancient healers considered it an excellent medicine for the lungs.
With atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and tuberculosis, rheumatism and kidney disease, as well as with gastritis and low-acid ulcers, it is useful to eat bean dishes. This product stimulates the genitourinary system, normalizes salt metabolism, soothes the nerves and prevents the formation of tartar.
It is not recommended to often use beans for the elderly, patients with diagnoses of gout, nephritis, cholecystitis, colitis, with increased acidity of the stomach.
This crop is easy to grow, it can be stored all year round and can be used as an ingredient in many mouth-watering recipes without any problems. Vegetable salads, stews and beans simply stewed in tomato sauce, various soups and main courses, asparagus and green beans - all this is very tasty and healthy.
They say it was after the Patriotic War of 1812. The estate of the retired Major Yurisovsky received the famous neighbor - the Minister of Finance of Russia Dmitry Ivanovich Guryev.Dmitry Ivanovich was sure that he knew all the porridge in the world! However, the owner managed to impress him and, moreover, to argue with Guriev his monetary debt.
The serf chef Zakhar Kuzmin told the minister what the porridge invented by him consists of, adding the phrase: "Porridge without a soul is empty." Guriev bought Zakhara with his wife and children and made the wonderful porridge famous. In Russia, it has become an aristocratic dessert.
Guriev even took Zakhara with him abroad to surprise gourmets with an original dish there too. And the porridge with which he regaled them became known as “Guryev's”. This is how the Minister of Finance made his name famous for centuries. Now, few people know about the cook Kuzmin, this hero of our history, unfortunately, remained in the shadows. And there are still those who attribute the invention of the dish to Guryev himself and do not believe that some serf could have come up with such a dish, which is too refined, seemingly even in the French manner.
At the end of this story, I would like to add a caveat: Guryev porridge has become so popular and has been prepared so many times by different chefs that it is already difficult to say exactly what ingredients the serf cook put into it. Therefore, options are possible. But the main thing is always preserved: well-cooked Guryev porridge is incredibly tasty!
|Prepare loose buckwheat porridge|
|Take a glass of buckwheat, rinse with cold water and let it dry a little. Pour the cereals into a skillet and fry over medium heat. In a thick-walled saucepan, melt half a teaspoon of butter, add salt and add buckwheat. Stir and pour 2 cups of boiling water. Cover and tom on low heat for 15-20 minutes.|
This is another representative of the Champignons.
The closed fruiting body of the mushroom of white, grayish, beige color is not clearly divided into a leg and a cap, but most often it is generally spherical or pear-shaped. Sometimes the skin of the raincoat is dotted with soft "spines" over the entire surface, sometimes it is smooth.
We bet you, most likely, are accustomed to stepping on this mushroom sharply on occasion, so that from it - "puff!" - a cloud of the lightest spore powder flew out, without waiting for the mushroom to reproduce on its own. Yes, in such an overripe, semi-dried state, the raincoat, of course, is not good for food. But young fruit bodies, before losing their whiteness - small, dense - are quite edible even without preliminary boiling, which few people know about.
Gathering season: June August.
Do not confuse different types of raincoat with a false raincoat - the second mushroom is very similar to a raincoat in shape, but its spherical fruiting body with hard tissues is brightly colored in shades of ocher and turns red when cut. The pseudo-raincoat is inedible, and in large quantities it is slightly poisonous.
Home, garden, vegetable garden, cooking and procurement
The blog of Alenkin's estate continues on the Telegram channel of the same name.
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