Dogwood: varieties and cultivation


Useful ornamental plant dogwood can be mastered on the site

General characteristics

Cornel ordinary (or male) - Cornus mas - deciduous, highly branched shrub or small tree up to 8 meters high.

In nature, it grows in mountain forests, on forest edges and in thickets of other bushes, rising to a level of 1500 meters. Found in Transcarpathia, Crimea, the Caucasus, Central and Southern Europe and Western Asia.

Young shoots of dogwood are initially greenish-yellow, later covered with gray cracking bark. Leaves are simple, whole, elongated-elliptical, narrowly pointed at the end, green, glossy above and lighter below, with compressed scattered hairs.


Dogwood plants - long-lived shrubs - live from 120 to 250 years. Their bark is reddish brown. The fruits are edible, juicy, sweet and sour, astringent, pleasant to the taste, after freezing their taste is significantly improved.

The reduction in areas of dogwood is associated with insufficient production of high-quality planting material, however, the author of this article reliably knows that this problem is beginning to be gradually resolved, there are already plantations in Krasnogvardeisky, Belogorsky, Bakhchisarai districts, in the zone of Sevastopol and Yalta, in Kherson and Zaporizhzhya regions. The widespread distribution of dogwood is also hindered by its low winter hardiness - even in the conditions of the Central zone of Russia, which has a not so harsh climate, dogwood sometimes freezes to the level of snow cover.

Cornel is an extremely valuable fruit crop, biologically active components that make up the berries, normalize blood pressure, prevent sclerosis, in addition, berries are used as a tonic, tonic, anti-inflammatory agent for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Its fruits are considered valuable biologically... Their pulp contains up to 17% sugars, over 3% organic acids, vitamins C, P, A, a lot of iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur salts. The content of vitamin C in fruits is close to that of currants, and in some varieties it is even higher.

The inhabitants of the Crimea consider the dogwood fruit to be extremely useful for all kinds of diseases, especially in the form of a decoction. There is even a small legend about this, explaining the shortage of doctors in Taurida, who did not agree to stay there to work, because they did not see the point in this due to the presence of a huge amount of wild-growing dogwood, which at that time was considered the best doctor against all diseases inherent in human the body.

From time immemorial, a decoction of cornel leaves was used to treat intestinal diseases, and a decoction of fruits was used to treat colds and fevers. In addition, the fruits have bactericidal properties. Quite recently it was found that the cornelian bark, its berries and leaves contain organic acids, sugars, pectins, tannins, and they contain the same amount of vitamin C as in black currants. In the Caucasus, a special vitamin lavash is made from mashed dogwood berries. It is reliably known that during the First World War, with the help of such lavash on the Caucasian front, it was possible to eliminate such a dangerous disease as scurvy.

Inhabitants of the southern regions, where dogwood is the most common, unripe berries are salted with bay leaves and fennel, resulting in a dish that tastes like well-known olives. It is known from reliable sources that this recipe, bypassing the years, has reached our days and since the times of Ancient Greece and Rome, where cornelian fruits were also salted and eaten with cheese and fish, and almost did not change.

Due to its early flowering, dense beautiful foliage and bright fruits, durability and resistance in urban conditions, the dogwood is an excellent ornamental plant for gardens, parks and home gardens.

Dogwood varieties

Over the long history of growing dogwood, a fairly large number of varieties have been created that differ in the shape of the crown, color of the leaves, size and taste of the fruits. Among them, the most famous are worth noting:

Vladimirsky
One of the most productive varieties with large (average weight over 7 g), outwardly attractive, one-dimensional, shiny, black-red fruits, oval-cylindrical, somewhat flattened on both sides. The pulp of the fruit is gristly, dense, the taste is sweet and sour. They ripen at the end of August. The positive quality of this plant is the absence of fruit shedding, due to their dense attachment to the branches. Fruiting is abundant, annual, the yield from a twenty-year-old plant is 55-60 kilograms. The fruits are good both fresh and processed.


Vydubetsky
The fruits are large, reach 6.5 grams, oval-pear-shaped, dark red, shiny and juicy with a thin skin and delicate, sweet and sour pulp with a specific cornelian aroma. The variety is characterized by an average ripening period and an annual stable (up to 60 kilograms per plant) yield. The fruits are tasty both raw and suitable for processing.

Evgeniya
Fruits are regular oval, shiny, dark red, almost black when fully ripe, with a thin but dense skin. The pulp is dark red, tender, sweet-sour taste. The average fruit weight is 6 grams. The fruits ripen in the last decade of August - early September. The variety has a high yield, a 15-year-old tree can produce up to 50 kilograms of fruit. Fruits ripen together, do not crumble, ripen well in maturation, fresh in the refrigerator are stored for up to five weeks. Evgenia's variety is one of the best fruits in terms of biochemical composition. They are good fresh, frozen and processed products.

Coral Stamp
The variety is obtained by crossing the yellow-fruited dogwood (Amber) and the red-fruited dogwood varieties. Fruits are pink-orange, original in shape, barrel-shaped, similar to cherry plums. The average fruit weight is about 6 grams. When fully ripe, the fruits are transparent. They are sweet, with a cherry flavor, but somewhat sour. The pulp of the fruit is pink. The variety is distinguished by an average ripening period, annual fruiting and a stable yield of up to 40 kilograms per tree. The fruits are suitable for consumption both fresh and in jelly, jam, juices and syrups.

Lukyanovsky
The fruits are large, one-dimensional, have the shape of a bottle, are beautifully colored in a dark red color, and in the period of full ripening they are almost black. Fruits are distinguished by juicy pulp, dense and dark red, with a specific cornelian aroma. The fruits usually ripen in the third decade of August. Plants of this variety have a compact, rounded crown, and reach a height of 3 meters. Fruiting is annual, the harvest from a twenty-year-old tree reaches 70 kilograms.

Tender
A yellow-fruited variety, distinguished by original bottle-shaped fruits with a delicate sweet pulp, in mature fruits a bone is visible through it. The average fruit weight is 4.5-5.5 grams. The variety is distinguished by an average ripening period, annual and stable fruiting, the yield from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 40 kilograms. The crown of the tree is oval-pyramidal, up to 2.2 meters high, making the plant looks very attractive. The fruits are good both fresh and in raw jams.

Glowworm
One of the largest-fruited varieties with an average fruit weight of 6.5-7.5 grams. Bottle-shaped fruits with a thickened neck. Ripe fruits are red-black with dark red flesh, firm, sweet-sour and very aromatic. They ripen at the end of August, do not crumble and are well stored after harvesting. A tree with an oval crown up to 2.5 meters high and up to 3. Fruiting is annual, the harvest from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 60 kilograms. Fresh fruits are very tasty when fully ripe, well suited for freezing and processing.

Elegant
Bottle-shaped fruits with a thin neck, graceful, very nicely aligned in shape and size, with an average weight of 5 grams. Ripe fruits are cherry-black, their flesh is dark red, tender. The variety is early, ripens in the first decade of August, in some years - at the end of July. Unpicked fruits do not crumble, wither and hang on the tree until frost. A spur-type variety - plants are low, up to 2 meters high with a wide, but sparse crown. The harvest from a fifteen-year-old tree can reach 50 kilograms. It is slightly lower than that of other varieties, but due to its beautiful, graceful and tasty fruits, the Elegant variety deserves attention. Its fruits, as the earliest in terms of ripening, are often used fresh.

These varieties are very valuable and can be confidently recommended for both amateur and industrial gardening.

Today, the market for dogwood seedlings is represented mainly by small private farms, or simply by amateur gardeners who earn their living by producing seedlings; prices for seedlings vary depending on their origin. The cheapest, obtained from sowing seeds (their price ranges from 20 to 45 rubles), however, the quality of such plants is not very high - only 1.5-2% of cultural characteristics remain from the original, and such a seedling begins to bear fruit only by 10- 12 years old.

Seedlings obtained by means of green cuttings are much more expensive; their rooting takes place in a greenhouse, hence the costs, such a seedling can be estimated at 120-170 rubles, but its advantages are that it begins to bear fruit already in 3-4 years. The most expensive seedlings are obtained by grafting varieties on a stock - wild dogwood, such seedlings can bear fruit the next year, and they cost about 200-250 rubles per plant.

Requirements for agricultural technology

Cornel is a thermophilic plant and is most successfully grown in regions with a fairly mild climate. In the conditions of central Russia, the fruits of dogwood ripen in a warm, slightly rainy summer.

You can try growing it in more northern regions as well. After all, in recent years, they begin to widen introduce grapes, individual gardeners grow apricots, nectarine. It must be remembered that dogwood is picky about the composition of the soil, it feels best on rich in lime, rather than on acidic soils, rather photophilous, but grows in the shade.

Planting dogwood

It is better to plant dogwood seedlings in a garden plot in the fall, poplar trees can serve as a reference point: the end of leaf fall is a good time for planting dogwood. On the site, it should be placed on the south or southwest side in order to at least slightly reduce the likelihood of frost damage to plants. Usually, in order to enjoy the fruits of the dogwood to its fullest, it is enough to plant 2-3 plants. Considering the further growth of the bush and the development of the root system, they should be placed at a distance of at least 2.5–3 meters from each other.

Plants are planted in pits 50-60 cm wide and deep, covered with soil rich in humus, and watered with 1-2 buckets of water, this is usually quite enough.

The aerial part should not be cut off, since the fibrous root system of the dogwood ensures its 100 percent survival rate.

As for industrial plantings, here the planting scheme is somewhat different and depends, first of all, on soil fertility. The more fertile your site, the more powerful the plants will turn out and, accordingly, the further apart they should be located. On poorer soils, planting is carried out denser. At the same time, if the dogwood orchard adjoins other fruit crops, the scheme of this garden can be preserved. It is recommended to plant industrial plantations according to the 5x4 meter scheme, so 500 trees can be placed on a hectare.

Planting and harvesting dogwood

Care for an industrial plantation is practically no different from that in amateur gardening, the exception, perhaps, is mandatory watering, a sufficient amount of which is provided by installing drip irrigation.

Harvesting in both industrial and amateur horticulture is carried out by hand.

Use of dogwood fruit

The fruits are consumed both fresh and after processing them into jelly and compotes, syrups, marmalades, various drinks, and also get excellent wine and liqueur from them. In folk medicine, they are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, as an appetite stimulant, diuretic, tonic for vitamin deficiencies and general weakening of the body.

Among other things, the fruits are used in dried form for the preparation of infusions and decoctions. Roasted and ground kernels are used as a coffee substitute. In the Caucasus, special sweet cakes in the form of a long ribbon are prepared from dogwood - a fruit dough pastille based on mashed pulp, which quenches thirst surprisingly quickly.

Dogwood recipes tested by the author:

Cornelian compote
Pouring - for one liter of water, one kilogram of sugar. I sort out the dogwood, rinse it, boil it for 2-3 minutes in boiling water and leave it to dry. I put it in small sterilized jars, fill it with hot fill and close it. I sterilize the cans of compote for about 30 minutes at 85 ° C.

Kissel from dogwood and gooseberry
130 grams of berries (in half), 125 grams of sugar, 50 grams of starch - there will be liquid jelly. I wash the berries and put them in hot water, boil for about 10 minutes. I drain the broth, and knead the remaining berries. I add pulp to the broth, boil and filter, then pour sugar and boil again. At the end, I add starch, previously diluted in cold water, and brew jelly.

Dogwood jam
1 kg of dogwood, 700 grams of sugar. I peel the dogwood fruit and boil it in a little water with sugar until it thickens. Then I sterilize in jars at 85 ° C for twenty minutes.

Nikolay Khromov,
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Researcher,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy


Common varieties and varieties

Recently, dogwood has been popular with breeders. They mainly breed decorative varieties that are widely used in landscape design.

Cornel ordinary

The most common type, including in Russia. The average height of the shrub is 2–2.5 m. The flowers are greenish-yellow, the fruits are bright scarlet, elongated. Differs in unpretentiousness, can grow without leaving at all.

Its most popular varieties:

  • Pyramidalis. Shrub up to 4 m high with a pyramidal crown
  • Nana. A dwarf variety with a height of no more than 1 m, the crown, even without pruning, turns into an almost regular ball
  • Variegata. Bright green leaves with a wide lettuce or white stripe along the edge
  • Aurea. Very elegant golden yellow leaves
  • Aurea Variegata. On the main green background of the leaf plate, golden spots and stripes stand out.

Photo gallery: selection varieties of common dogwood

Dogwood Pyramidalis is easily recognizable due to its unusual crown shape Dogwood Nana - one of the smallest hybrids Dogwood Variegata - the most common variegated form Dogwood Aurea looks very decorative regardless of the season Dogwood Aurea Variegata is prized for its unusual appearance

Dogwood white

It grows mainly in the Far East, China, Japan. The average height of the shrub is up to 3 m, the shoots are thin, drooping. The bark is brick-colored. Young branches cast a silvery gray in the sun. The surface of the leaf is slightly wrinkled. The flowers are white, the buds open in early summer and September, simultaneously with fruiting. The berries are milky white, almost round.

  • Elegantissima. Differs in high frost resistance. Crimson shoots, dark green leaves are streaked with cream strokes, stripes, a blurred border is characteristic
  • Siberica Aurea. The height of the bush is no more than 1.5–2 m, the leaves are pale yellow, the shoots are bloody scarlet, the fruits are white, with a bluish tint
  • Siberica Variegata. Shrub up to 2 m high, coral-colored shoots.The leaves are dark green with a wide white border. In autumn, they change color to purple, but the shade of the border remains unchanged. It does not differ in growth rate, rarely bears fruit.

Photo gallery: varieties of white dogwood

Dogwood Elegantissima lives up to the name Siberica Aurea dogwood looks unusual during flowering and fruiting Dogwood Siberica Variegata is a slow growing, rarely bearing fruit, but a very decorative hybrid

Dogwood blood red

Shrub about 4 m high, intensively branching. The leaves are ovoid, almost round, in autumn they are painted in all shades of scarlet, crimson, crimson, purple. The inside is densely pubescent. The flowers are small, greenish-white. The fruits are purple-black.

  • Vertissima (greenest). Bark, leaves and berries are bright green
  • Variegata. The leaves are dark green with milky white or salad spots. Green young shoots gradually change color to crimson. The fruits are almost black
  • Mitchii (Mitch). Leaves are dark green with a reddish undertone.

Photo gallery: selection hybrids of blood-red dogwood

Dogwood Vertissima - the only monochrome variety The blood-red dogwood Variegata has crimson shoots contrasting effectively with the dark green foliage. Dogwood Mitchii looks like a Christmas decoration

Flowering dogwood

His homeland is North America. The short tree has a very thick, spreading crown. In autumn, the leaves fall off, having had time to change color from green to purple.

On its basis, breeders have derived:

  • Cherokee Chief. A tree 4-5 m high, flowers of a very unusual scarlet shade
  • Rubra. The leaves on the same plant are colored in various shades of pink, from pale pastel to crimson.

Photo gallery: flowering dogwood and its varieties

Flowering dogwood is a low tree with a dense crown Like all flowering dogwood varieties, the Cherokee Chief has an abundance of flowering. In Rubra dogwood, flowers on one tree can be painted in different shades.

Dogwood scion

Also found in North America. Moisture-loving, grows mainly on the banks of rivers. A characteristic feature is the presence of a large amount of root growth. The height of the bush is up to 2.5 m. Shoots are brick or coral in color, the flowers are milky white, the berries are cast blue.

  • White Gold. Leaves are bright green, with a wide milky white border
  • Flaviramea. Differs in growth rate, the crown is almost spherical. Yellowish shoots turn green in summer. In autumn, the leaves (but not all) are cast red
  • Kelsey. The height of the bush is not more than 1 m, the diameter is about 1.5 m. The bark is green with a reddish tint. In autumn, the leaves stay on the plant for a very long time, changing color to coral or dark scarlet.

Photo gallery: varieties of offspring dogwood

Dogwood White Gold is a popular variegated variety Dogwood Flaviramea grows very quickly, this also applies to adult plants Dogwood Kelsey looks very smart for most of the fall.

Dogwood Coase

In nature, it is found exclusively in Japan and China. Shrub height - 7-9 m. Differs in decorative flowering. In autumn, the leaves turn crimson.

  • Gold Star. The height of the bush is 5-6 m, the leaf plates are bright green with a yellow spot near the central vein
  • Milky Way. The bush is more than 7 m high, the flowers are large, with snow-white petals.

Photo gallery: Coase's dogwood and its varieties

Dogwood Coase - very tall, but still a bush The Gold Star dogwood is slightly smaller in height than the Coase dogwood, on the basis of which it was derived Milky Way dogwood owes its name to the shade of the petals

Other varieties

Among gardeners, not only decorative, but also plentifully fruiting varieties of dogwood are popular. The most common in Russia are those that are bred by domestic breeders:

  1. Vavilovets. One of the earliest, the berries are harvested in the 15th of August. Fruits weighing 6-8 g, pear-shaped. The skin is dark scarlet, from a distance it seems black. The pulp is blood-red, it turns pink closer to the stone.
  2. Grenadier. Differs in stability and abundance of fruiting. The harvest ripens in early August. Fruits in the form of a cylinder, weighing 5-6 g. The skin is shiny, bright scarlet.
  3. Eugene. The variety is of medium ripening, the crop is harvested in the last decade of August or early September. Even perfectly ripe berries do not fall off the bush. Fruits are aligned, elliptical, slightly tapering at the stalk.
  4. Elena. A variety from the early category, characterized by high frost resistance (up to -35 ° C). The fruits are oval, regular in shape. The berries do not fall off, even when they are fully ripe. The average weight of the fruit is 5 g, the skin is dark scarlet (the black undertone characteristic of many other varieties is absent). The pulp is sweet, with a slight sourness. The variety is fruitful (40–45 kg per bush) and fast-growing (it bears the first fruits 3 years after planting).
  5. Kostya. Late maturing dogwood, ripening in late September or October. Berries do not fall off the tree. The average fruit weight is 5.5–6 g, the skin is black-red.
  6. Coral. Depending on the weather, in summer, the harvest is harvested from the last decade of August to mid-September. The fruits are small enough, weighing 3-4 g, but the taste for dogwood is very atypical - sweet, extremely similar to sweet cherries. Ripe fruits quickly crumble. There is a variety of Coral Mark - fruits weighing 5-6 g, similar in shape to cherry plum.
  7. Vladimirsky. Ripens in the last decade of August. Differs in high yield (50–55 kg per adult bush) and large size of berries (8–10 g). Even when ripe, they do not crumble. Resistant to drought, heat, disease. Fruits are cylindrical, slightly flattened.
  8. Lukyanovsky. Fruiting occurs at the very end of August. Berries in the form of a bottle, one-dimensional. Average weight 6–7 g. The skin is glossy, very dark scarlet.
  9. Tender. The berries ripen in mid-August, annually. Fruits are pear-shaped, bright yellow in color. Ripe berries shine through in the sun, the stone is clearly visible. The pulp is very tender, sweet and aromatic. Berry weight - 6–7 g. Average yield - 30–35 kg.
  10. Glowworm. Bottle-shaped fruits weighing more than 7.5 g. Ripen in early September. The skin is dark scarlet, the flesh is even darker, cherry. The berries are very juicy. 50-60 kg of fruits are removed from an adult bush. The variety is resistant to drought, frost, disease.
  11. Semyon. Late ripening variety. The creators are positioned as self-fertile, but practice shows that this is not entirely true. The crop is harvested in late September or early October. Cherry peel, pear-shaped fruit weight - 6–7 g. Frost resistance is not too high, up to -20 ° C.
  12. Exotic. A variety of medium ripening. Berries weigh 7–7.5 g, elongated bottle shape. Dark cherry skin. Ripe fruits do not crumble.
  13. Alyosha. A variety with high winter hardiness and immunity. The berries are pear-shaped, weighing 3-4 g. The skin is thin, sunny yellow. The harvest ripens in the last decade of August.
  14. Nikolka. Very productive early variety. Fruits are slightly flattened; as they ripen, they quickly crumble. The taste is pleasant, sweet and sour. The pulp is not too firm, but very juicy. Cherry peel. Productivity - 30–35 kg.
  15. Elegant. An early variety with high immunity. The berries ripen in early August, sometimes even at the end of July. The weather conditions have little effect on the yield. The fruits are elongated, symmetrical, bottle-shaped. The skin is almost black, the average weight is 4–6 g. The yield is up to 45 kg. Ripe berries not picked in time seem to "wither" and do not crumble until frost.

Photo gallery: dogwood varieties popular with Russian gardeners

Cornelian Vavilovets is easy to identify by the pulp, which brightens near the stone Dogwood Grenadier is characterized by stability and abundance of fruiting Kizil Evgeniya - one of the most popular varieties of medium ripening Kizil Elena, due to its high frost resistance, can be grown in most of the territory of Russia Kizil Kostya ripens one of the last The taste of the Coral variety is very atypical for dogwood Kizil Vladimirsky is a high-yielding, large-fruited variety, resistant to unfavorable weather factors. Cornelian cherry Lukyanovsky is harvested at the end of summer Dogwood Tender - one of the few yellow-fruited varieties The berries of the dogwood Firefly are very juicy Kizil Semyon is considered self-fertile by the creators, but practice does not confirm this Even perfectly ripe fruits of the Exotic dogwood do not crumble from the bush. Dogwood Alyosha is valued for its good frost resistance and unusual appearance of the fruit Dogwood Nikolka must be picked on time so that the berries do not have time to crumble Dogwood Elegant ripens earlier than all other varieties.

Planting dogwood


Dogwood grows on any soil, but prefers limed, with a sufficient content of manganese (42 mg / kg soil). Although it is a drought tolerant plant, it still prefers moderately moist soils. With prolonged drought, leaves begin to curl, flower buds may not form, the length of growth shoots decreases.

Dogwood seedlings do not need to be planted in the open sun. It grows well in partial shade of other, taller plants. This is a very nice feature of it.

Planting holes for dogwood are made with a diameter of 80 cm, a depth of 60-80 cm. Seedlings, when planted in a permanent place, are formed with a stem height of 30-50 cm, with five to seven skeletal branches. Usually no pruning is done. Only remove shoots below the planned height of the trunk. The crown must be thinned out.

Planting depth of dogwood seedling: when planting, the root collar should be at the level of the soil. If you deepen the seedling when planting, then over time there will be a lot of growth around the trunk. And if the root collar is above the soil level, then the seedling is very bad and will take root for a long time.

Two seedlings of different varieties are wrapped around a metal post

Saplings of different varieties are planted from each other at a distance of at least 3-4 meters. But if you have little space in the garden, you can do this. Saplings 2-3 years old of different varieties are planted in one planting pit. Immediately, the trunks of both are intertwined (braided) around each other and over the years you will get one plant with flowers that can pollinate each other. That is, visually it will be one plant. Its trunk will look like a tight spiral.

A variety of such planting of two seedlings in one planting hole will be twisting the trunks not around themselves, but around a column (better than metal), which is placed between the seedlings. The column remains there forever.

Dogwood can be shaped as a tree or as a bush. Everything will depend on you - how you form the plant. If you do not remove the lower shoots, then a bush will grow over time. If, during the first 3-4 years, you cut off excess branches from the trunk, then a tree will form.

Dogwood is a long-liver. It can produce a wonderful harvest in a hundred years! So, if you plant a dogwood on your site, then it will delight more than one generation with its delicious, beautiful, healthy fruits.

Many interesting cultivated large-fruited dogwood varieties have appeared, of which the most interesting for gardeners are Grushevidny, Kapelka, Urozhainy, Eugenia's Seianets, Number two, Pervenets and others.


Growing kiwi. Kiwi varieties. Kiwi planting and care

Growing kiwi. Kiwi varieties. Kiwi planting and care

Is it possible grow exotic kiwi in areas where there is no subtropical climate, for example, in central Russia? The answer is yes. There are varieties of kiwithat are adapted even for areas with harsh winters.

Growing kiwi of course it will take some effort, but if you ensure the proper carethen kiwi planting will not be in vain. Because it will delight you with delicious fruits, and also add a little exoticism to your site!

Kiwi - delicious and wonderful exotic berry. However, kiwi for us is no longer very exotic and can be found on the shelves of any grocery store. It is not surprising, due to its excellent taste, he is deeply loved by ordinary people.

However, some people do not want to be content with imported kiwi and want grow your own kiwi bushready for any challenge. If you are the same person, then it is not in vain that you decided to read this article, because today in it we will look at where the kiwi, kiwi varieties come from, as well as planting and caring for it.

The origin of the kiwi

There is a misconception that kiwi can be found in the wild. But this is not at all the case. The berry is relatively young, it is only 82 years old and it was bred by selection. And the name was given in honor of the kiwi bird, which is so similar in color and fluffiness to these berries.

This miracle was brought out by Alexander Ellison, who, wishing to grow flowers of the Chinese decorative liana Mihutao, decided to increase the amount of color and its beauty.

It was almost impossible for Mihutao to eat, or possible, but only for lovers of something tough and absolutely tasteless.

Having engaged in the cultivation of this wild vine, Alexander and several of his colleagues achieved an unexpected result. After 30 years of their hard work, they got not only a beautiful color, but also delicious fluffy berries of a rather large size. Kiwi brought just a huge yield, the vine grew without stopping every day, so gardeners had to sweat over its constant pruning, but the pleasant bonus in the form of fruits that could be harvested every other day was worth the effort.

But gardening friends were in no hurry to share their wealth. They preferred to leave the berries in secret and enjoy the most unusual taste for themselves. Until James McLocklin, being bankrupt and practically poor, bought several bushes from Alexander, who took pity on the man's condition.

Kiwis just broke through the local markets. This was an absolute novelty for the whole world. James, being an intelligent man, immediately began to expand the number of bushes on his site, until he planted an entire plantation, while becoming a wealthy man.

Miracle bushes immediately scattered all over New Zealand, and became extremely popular with local residents, and soon around the world.

Kiwi varieties

Kiwi variety "Hayward"

One of the largest kiwi varieties that will not disappoint you. It requires quite a lot of space, like any other vine. Grows in subtropical conditions. Under proper conditions, it begins to bloom in the third week of May and bloom lasts until its very end or until the end of the first week of June. Requires a pollinator next to it.

It has medium-sized leaves that are slightly concave inward and have a dark green color, while the top is slightly waxed, and the bottom is more rough.

The fruits are large, up to 150 grams, while they are oval and slightly flattened on the sides. The peel is fluffy, brown with greenish blotches. In subtropical conditions, it ripens by the end of October.

In the first year of fruiting, it can give up to 26 kilograms, in the second up to 67 kilograms, in the third up to 93 kilograms, and so on. Therefore, this variety is extremely popular in all countries and is grown both for sale and for oneself everywhere. At the same time, when the basement is cool, the berries are stored for up to six months.

The fruits are very juicy and tasty, therefore they are used for sale, fresh consumption and for preparing various dishes with the addition of kiwi or as an additive for marinade.

By the way! Kiwi is the best ingredient for marinating meat because it softens and softens it. But you should not add kiwi a day before cooking, otherwise it will simply eat away all the meat and turn it into a shapeless piece, add kiwi 2-3 hours before cooking.

Kiwi variety "Bruno"

This variety is in second place, because it differs from its predecessor in a lower yield.

This variety also grows in subtropical climates, but has a more moderate growth. The leaves are oblong, pointed towards the end and slightly concave towards the middle. They are dark green in color. Not capable of self-pollination.

Blooms by the third week of May and stops blooming after 9-13 days. Fruits are slightly smaller, up to 70 grams alone, while they have an elongated oval shape. The color of the peel is brownish, the peel is also covered with short hairs, which gives the berry fluffiness.Productivity in the third year up to 60 kilograms per bush. Kiwi can be stored in the basement for up to 4 months. At the same time, it has a high level of transportability, does not wrinkle and does not lose its presentation on the road.

Kiwi variety "Monti"

Unlike its predecessors, this variety is much smaller and therefore rarely used for sale. Basically, it is grown either for themselves or for some technical purposes. Its leaves are large, somewhat similar to the leaves of the Bruno variety.

The variety is vigorous and requires constant pruning, otherwise it will be extremely difficult to control its size. Cannot self-pollinate, requires a pollinator variety.

As mentioned earlier, Monty's fruits are much smaller than in previous varieties. The weight of one fruit rarely exceeds 30 grams. But at the same time, the color appears already in the second week of May and lasts only two weeks.

Kiwi variety "Abbot"

This variety is slightly better than Monty, but requires some peculiarities in its care.

There should not be too many fruits on it, otherwise they will grow smaller and sour, so the load will have to be regulated on your own.

At the same time, this kiwi is very fond of moisture, both in the air and in the soil. Also, it will not be possible to forget about pruning, because the variety is fast-growing and will often have to be pruned. Not capable of self-pollination.

Fruits are medium, weighing up to 70 grams alone. It has a shape similar to a pear. It does not lie long, only 2-3 months in a basement. But the taste still compensates for all the inconveniences.

Allison kiwi variety

Such a variety requires a pollinator next to it. At the same time, it is a rather fruitful fruit, but it is also soon growing, therefore it requires frequent pruning to control its size.

The fruit is shaped like a bell and has a dark brown color, while it is covered with small short hairs, which gives it the appearance of fluffiness. Productivity for 9 years is up to 72 kilograms, while one fruit weighs on average up to 45 grams.

Kiwi variety "Matua" (male)

It does not bear fruit, but its presence provides. After all, it belongs to the male pollinating varieties.

It has small inflorescences, up to 7 flowers in one. It blooms for about two weeks, which is extremely beneficial, because it manages to fertilize varieties that bloom earlier or later.

After flowering, it leaves behind a pedicel, so it will be difficult to confuse it with other varieties when you cut the kiwi.

Kiwi variety "Tomuri" (male)

It is also a pollinator variety. Taller and more blooming.

With proper placement, one such bush can fertilize up to 6 kiwi bushes, which is an extremely profitable option. Therefore, it is often used for growing kiwi on plantations. But it is often used in home gardening, if there is a place, but if you wish, you can simply cut it off with high quality.

It is used more often than his brother Matua precisely because of its profitability. The main thing is to place this variety favorably among the rest, or to cut it off so that it grows along a certain required trajectory.

Kiwi planting

Miracle botanists have long created kiwi varieties that are resistant to our hard frosts. You just need to purchase the necessary tree. And when you've finally done this, you can start landing! Planting takes place in summer and spring, and for small bushes, up to three years old, it can be done in autumn, but only if you are completely sure that there will be no frost at night.

The main thing is, of course, to choose a place for kiwi. The shrub loves clay soils, and so that groundwater does not pass too close to the roots. You should also take care of the support in advance. Still, a kiwi is a liana-bush and it will need to be wrapped around something. This can be anything from a picket fence to a fence, the most important thing is that this backing can withstand the weight of the fruit, which can reach 100 kilograms.

The depth of the hole in which you will plant the kiwi should be up to 40 centimeters, and the width up to 30 centimeters. A drainage layer is laid out at the bottom of the hole, which can be chosen at your discretion, from ordinary stones to rubble, the main thing is to ensure that there is no standing water. Then a seedling is placed in the hole, which is covered with earth, but in no case is tamped. After that, the plant is thoroughly watered and mulched with sawdust. For a while, until the kiwi gets stronger, it is worth providing it with diffused light, so as not to bring the bush into even more stress. The distance between several kiwis must be at least 2 meters.

Kiwi care

Since the plant is subtropical, then it should receive proper care! It is worth providing the kiwi with proper watering so that the soil does not have time to dry out too much, but it is important to avoid stagnant water. In the second year after planting, the bush is fed with a universal top dressing. It is very important that it does not contain chlorine.

Some varieties do not have time to ripen before frost, so they ripen already lying in the house, in a warm place.

The main thing is to have time to collect the fruits before frost and have time to provide the kiwi with proper protection from frost. Young plants are covered with spruce branches or covering material, or covered with fallen leaves, straw, or at least sawdust. The lashes of an adult liana are removed from the support and laid on the ground, they can also be covered with spruce branches or wrapped with covering material. It is undesirable to use polyethylene film, since a greenhouse effect will be created and without air access, heating is possible.

Also try to fence off the bush from animals, especially from representatives of felines, who also do not mind eating kiwi, or rather its leaves. Some gardeners, because of these robbers, found only a dug hole in the place of only planted kiwi.

And so, today we met with such a wonderful plant as kiwi! It is not so difficult to grow an exotic fruit in our modern world, and botanists have long bred frost-resistant varieties that will survive even at -30 ° C. The main thing is desire.


Types and varieties of dogwood: growing, planting and care

Today, there are up to fifty different varieties of dogwood. Mostly these are trees, but there are also deciduous shrubs. You can plant dogwood in the northern regions, but in a similar situation, the berries for the plant will differ in taste from those that were collected in the south. Mild winters and warm, sunny summers allow the fruit to fill up faster. They become juicier and sweeter. If the dogwood was planted in accordance with the recommendations of gardeners, then you can collect approximately the same amount of fruit.

The frost resistance of the tree itself allows it to withstand temperatures of about 30 degrees below zero. Therefore, you can plant dogwood in central Russia. The plant does not really like cloudy weather and high humidity of both soil and air. In this regard, the harvest is badly affected by prolonged seasonal rains and fog. This weather also negatively affects the pollination of the tree during flowering. When the dogwood begins to bloom, pollination can take 4 weeks. During this time, the bees will have time to pollinate almost all the inflorescences, if they do not fall off due to strong wind or hail.

Kyzyl yield directly depends on the age of the plant. The older the tree, the more fruit it can harvest at the end of the season. Given this factor, fruiting can be expected from several kilograms to two hundred.

The fruits can be of various shapes and colors. There are black, red, orange, purple and yellow berries. They are usually round or elliptical, but also pear-shaped and cylindrical.

The dogwood tree is a cross-pollinated plant. It is also capable of self-pollination, but at the same time fruiting decreases. It is for this reason that it is desirable that several trees be planted on the site, preferably 4-5 pieces. This will make it possible to increase yields already in the first year of fruiting.

The plant loves a sunny set, but it feels best in a slightly shaded place so that the scorching summer sun does not burn the foliage.


Growing

Dogwood is shade-tolerant, not too picky about the composition of the soil, calmly withstands even severe frosts, recovering from root shoots. Saplings are sold on the market, but they can be grown by yourself from a cut, cuttings, offspring or seeds.

The shrub will begin to bear fruit in 3-5 years. It is necessary to plant three plants nearby for pollination and fruiting. If there is not enough free space on the territory, then two or three dogwood bushes are planted in one hole.

This plant is long-lived. It is practically not susceptible to diseases and pests. Lush blooms, dense emerald foliage, scarlet (or purple, white) shiny berries - all this makes the shrub indispensable in landscape design.


Cornel ordinary is an ornamental shrub, attractive throughout the whole year. In early spring, yellow flowers appear on it, at the end of summer - red fruits, and in autumn the leaves are beautifully colored. The fruits of the common dogwood are valued for their medicinal properties; you can prepare a liqueur from berries and numerous preserves. Learn how to grow common dogwood and find the best dogwood variety for your garden.

Cornel useful properties

Cornelian cherry - decorative properties

Cornel ordinary, or male (lat.Córnus mas) grows slowly. Ultimately, it reaches a height of 7 m, forming a sprawling bush with a rounded crown. In autumn, the leaves turn pale pink to orange in color. Dogwood begins to bloom in February, even before the leaves appear. The early varieties begin bearing fruit in August, the later ones in October.... The common dogwood "Variegata" has special decorative advantages, which captures with red spots and leaves bordered with white stripes. The bushes can be planted individually, although planted as a hedge is also excellent.

Cornelian cherry - culinary properties

A very valuable biological feature of dogwood is the absence of alternation in fruiting. Cornelian cherry fruits have a sweet and sour taste. Berries can be eaten fresh or added to baked goods and desserts. They are also an excellent ingredient for making preserves, jams, syrups, and liqueurs. Dried can make a seasoning for marinades. Not fully ripe, after pickling they resemble olives. The liqueur obtained from them, the so-called "kizilovka", is very much appreciated.

Cornel ordinary - medicinal properties

Cornelian cherry fruits have numerous medicinal properties. They contain many vitamins of groups C, P, A, macro- and microelements, valuable components for the normal functioning of the human body. Useful for diseases of the digestive system. The leaves, bark and roots of the common dogwood are valuable pharmaceutical raw materials.

Growing dogwood

Cornel ordinary - a plant with little growing demands. Prefers a quiet place, sunny or partial shade. It is better to grow dogwood on soils, moderately fertile, sandy-clayey, rich in calcium. The soil should be constantly moderately moist, with a neutral or alkaline pH reaction. Cornel does not tolerate acidic soils.

The time for planting dogwood depends on what we choose - a seedling with an open root or a seedling in a container. If a plant with an open root system is purchased, plant it in early spring or autumn, cutting the roots to a length of approx. 15 cm. We also do with thin shoots. Plants in containers can be planted throughout the growing season.

Preparing a pit for planting dogwood consists in adding humus earth to it. If the plant is dry, the roots can be immersed in water for a few minutes. In turn, we place the plants to the same depth as they grew before. After planting, we compact the earth around the plants and add.

Other care procedures associated with the cultivation of common dogwood are: pruning and fertilizing ... Fertilizer is limited to a minimum (beginning of the growing season). The shrub reacts well to organic fertilizers such as manure.

Pruning should be done in the spring after flowering, thinning the crown and cutting out thickening branches. To prevent premature aging of the dogwood, several of the oldest shoots should be cut at the base every two to three years. New shoots will grow better, the number of flowers will be greater, and therefore, we will get more useful fruits.

If we are going to form a hedge from dogwood, it is necessary to remember about pruning in the first year. The main pruning of hedges is carried out in late winter or early spring; corrective pruning is possible during the growing season. The sides should form a trapezoid so that the lower parts of the plant receive more light and can develop accordingly.

Varieties

Cornelian cherry varieties are fertile, frost-resistant and can be grown in our climate.

Ukraine has been considered the leader in the cultivation of common dogwood for many years. Breeding work is underway on this species all the time. New, interesting varieties of common dogwood appear. In addition to Ukrainian varieties of dogwood, there are also known Bulgarian (Kasalnak, Shumensky), Czech (Sokolnicky, Ruzynsky), Slovak (Devin, Titus, Santana), Austrian (Jolico) ... The latter begins to bear fruit even on annual specimens. Its fruits are large, dark red in color. They ripen one of the last in late September - early October.

Below are the most valuable varieties of common dogwood.

Early varieties, ripen in the second half of August:

  • Elegant - fruits are large, pear-shaped, dark red.
  • Coral Stamp - the variety is frost-resistant, the berries are red-orange.
  • Flava - the fruits are yellow, very tasty, with a pronounced pineapple flavor.
  • Vydubitsky - fruits are large, beautiful pomegranate color, one of the most productive varieties.
  • Joy - fruits of medium size, color dark red to black.

Medium-late varieties, ripen in the first half of September:

  • Exotic - fruits are large, dark red, bottle-cylindrical in shape.
  • Amber - fruits of bright yellow color - almost transparent, even a stone is visible.
  • Glowworm - fruits are large, bottle-shaped, red-black.

"House garden vegetable garden" www.zagorodacha.ru

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Although I live in Ukraine, I somehow never had to admire such beautiful dogwood bushes. I heard that dogwood is useful, but I didn't attach much importance to it before, apparently in vain. Moreover, growing it, judging by your article, is quite simple.

In particular, in Ukraine, (in the Khmelnytsky region), a very good dogwood grows - large and sweet.

In the Caucasus, I saw a lot of dogwood, although I did not try it fresh - I only ate jam ..

Dogwood wood is distinguished by its particularly valuable properties, dense and hard. In the literature, there is information that earlier wheels were made of dogwood wood for the manufacture of the clock mechanism.

Wow, I didn't know for hours myself, thanks for sharing ..

As a child, I tried dogwood jam, and I didn't really like it :))

The taste and color .... but this year we have already prepared 5 cans ...

Every year I buy a large Georgian dogwood at the market, a wonderful berry, both healthy and tasty.

I love this tart, sour berry very much. I grew up in my grandmother's garden, so I ate it fresh and in compote and jam.

I don't really like fresh dogwood ... I like it more in the form of jam)))

I love dogwood when it freezes.

I like dogwood jam more)))

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