Growing potatoes, gardeners often encounter pests. Uninvited guests damage the tubers and tops of the crop, reducing the quality of the potatoes. As a result, gardeners are forced to carry out preventive and therapeutic measures against parasites, trying to remove them from the site.
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The medium late potato variety Red Fantasy is a product of the breeding work of the employees of the German company Europlant pflanzenzucht GMBH. Culture was included in the State Register of Russia in 2011. Popularly known as Fantasy Potatoes, Red Fantasy and just Fantasy.
The photo shows Red Fantasy potatoes.
The table gives a description of the variety.
|Ripening period||90-110 days|
|Bush||Tall, erect, stem type|
|The number of tubers in the bush||10-12|
|Coloration||The peel is red, with many small eyes, the flesh is rich yellow|
|Leaves||Large, intermediate, light green color, with slight waviness along the edge, intense anthocyanin coloration on the back|
|Taste||Good (4 on a five-point scale)|
|Cooking class / group||B (medium crumbly)|
|Yield||Average - 256-379 c / ha, maximum - 393 c / ha|
|Sustainability||To potato crayfish, golden potato nematode, wrinkled and banded mosaic, leaf roll virus|
The table shows the vitamin and mineral composition of raw potatoes with skin.
|Beta carotene||0.001 mg||5 mg|
|Vitamin B1||0.081 mg||1,5 mg|
|Vitamin B2||0.032 mg||1.8 mg|
|Vitamin B4||12.1 mg||500 mg|
|Vitamin B5||0.295 mg||5 mg|
|Vitamin B6||0.298 mg||2 mg|
|Vitamin B9||15 mcg||400 mcg|
|Vitamin C||19.7 mg||90 mg|
|Vitamin E||0.01 mg||15 mg|
|Vitamin K||2 μg||120 mcg|
|Vitamin PP||1,061 mg||20 mg|
|Potassium||425 mg||2500 mg|
|Calcium||12 mg||1000 mg|
|Magnesium||23 mg||400 mg|
|Sodium||6 mg||1300 mg|
|Phosphorus||57 mg||800 mg|
|Iron||0.81 mg||18 mg|
|Manganese||0.153 mg||2 mg|
|Copper||110 mcg||1000 mcg|
|Selenium||0.4 μg||55 mcg|
|Zinc||0.3 mg||12 mg|
The culture received admission to cultivation in the following regions of the country:
Purple potatoes were obtained relatively recently and have not yet been included in the State Register, but have already spread throughout Russia. Today the variety can be found not only in private plots, but also in the fields of farms.
The Gourmet variety belongs to the medium early, the tubers ripen on average in 90 days. Excellent keeping quality will allow you to transport tubers and store them all winter.
Characteristics of Gourmet potatoes:
Gourmet bushes are medium-sized, not spreading, the highest stems reach 70 cm. White potato flowers are decorated with black stamens. Leaves on strong stems are small, light. An average of 10 to 14 tubers are tied under one bush.
Each phase of the moon has its own impact on nature, because this is how the full-fledged symbiosis of the entire planet manifests itself. There are four main phases of the moon - Full Moon, New Moon, and Waxing and Waning Moon. Each phase has its own peculiarity that dominates, therefore it should be used as profitably as possible so that the garden or vegetable garden can get the maximum benefit.
So let's go over the recommendations for each phase.
The use of honey harvests by bringing the whole apiary or part of it to them.
As a mobile, you can use both the entire apiary, and part of it, or only families specially prepared for this.
The entire apiary is taken out when there are no conditions for its maintenance at a stationary place. Then the beekeeper is forced to take out the bees for the whole season, taking with him all the necessary equipment, foundation, sugar, etc. , basic examinations, selection and selection of queens, as well as partial preparation of bees for wintering). In this regard, it is necessary to place an apiary near some room or acquire a prefabricated portable workshop where the beekeeper can live and store the necessary apiary equipment. If the nomad is located near the beekeeper's residence, then you can come to the apiary. In areas where there is still no excessive apiary thickening, you can find a place where there will be honey collection throughout the season - for example, in the forest (dandelion, herbs, acacia, raspberry, blackberry, linden, heather or pad). On a more scarce territory, it becomes necessary to transport the apiary to new plants once or three times.
Transporting the entire apiary makes sense under other circumstances as well. For example, in the absence of a spring bribe in place, you can take the entire apiary to a large willow array located near the rapeseed field. With a rich summer honey harvest, the apiary is returned to the "base", where the selection and replacement of queens, anti-fighting measures, examinations are carried out, and preparation for the winter. At the end of summer, the entire apiary is again transported to the developing (or marketable) heather honey collection. This management scheme is typical for most apiaries.
The removal of families specially prepared for travel is practiced where, in principle, there are conditions for keeping an apiary on the spot, but far from the stationary place more attractive honey plants bloom, and whether there are long periods of no take-off on the spot. Weak families that require special attention should not be transported to such additional honey collection. Only producing families that will be able to fully use the honey harvest are taken out to the nomad. The families left in place will have better conditions for development at this time. All operations related to the reproduction of families, selection and replacement of queens, the formation of spare families, are carried out at the stationary part of the apiary.
With abundant and long honey harvests in a nomadic apiary, it is worth leaving the producing families (exported in the maximum number) for a longer period. At this time, bees are raised in a stationary apiary, which will replace the gatherers who are dying for nomadic life. To do this, from families preparing for swarming, strong layers or specially intended families are swept into mesh swarms of 1-1.5 kg of bees, which must "drink" honey (a little smoke must be put into the hive and wait a minute or two). If there is no fresh nectar in the hive, you need to give the bees some syrup or print out 1-2 sq. dm of reserves. It is best to sweep the bees into the swarm through the grate so as not to accidentally pick up the queen (or temporarily isolate the queen on the comb under the cap). Collected bees are transported to a nomadic apiary in swarms and filled up through the roof into a honey store. During the hours of intense flights, they will be taken calmly. If the "packages" are brought to the apiary in the evening, when most of the gatherers have already returned to the hive, it is safer to besiege the brought bees like a swarm - through the entrance. To "beat off someone else's smell" and accelerate acceptance into a reinforced family, you can spray them with water from a spray bottle at regular intervals. The timing of the reinforcement depends on the conditions in the stationary apiary and the duration of the honey collection used by the mobile apiary. In the same way, some or all of the colonies of a stationary apiary can be used to produce brood and young bees in layers for the needs of a nomadic apiary or for the production of combs with sealed stocks. This is especially important when transporting bees to the late nomadic honey harvest. Thus, in a sense, a stationary apiary serves a mobile apiary.
Where there is a rich forage base, but apiaries are too thickened, some families are taken to a nomadic camp just to provide the rest with better honey-harvesting conditions. And in this case, it is most economical to take on a trip the families that are most prepared for honey collection. Serving these families generally requires less time, money, and hassle, and produces more visible results.
If not far from the stationary apiary there are abundant, but short-term bribes, for example, from sainfoin, acacia or linden, you can bring families specially formed for such conditions (obtained by a raid on two - four-frame layering) or just two or three honeycomb frames of printed brood and a queen cell. ... Strong colonies should be involved in the raid in order to ensure a significant advantage of flying bees over the rest. The queen is fenced off with a grate on four honeycombs (with brood and empty ones), and honeycombs are placed behind the grating. At the end of the bribe, the greatly weakened "honey collectors" are taken to a stationary apiary, and the combs with brood and the queen are considered as layering.
The formation of such detachments of "honey pickers" is not carried out if this greatly weakens the families of the stationary apiary and reduces their productivity. However, if the removal of excess bees interferes with swarming in the period without tipping, and conditions do not allow to take out a larger number of colonies, then it will certainly play a positive role.
General principles of using heather honey collection
Heather flow lasts about a month: from the first days of August to the end of the first decade of September. At this time, the weather is quite stable and favorable.
Therefore, the opportunity to collect some heather honey is available, perhaps, every year. The reluctance to use heather has two main reasons: 1) difficulties in pumping heather honey 2) the well-established idea that the commercial use of heather bribe does not allow rapeseed to be used next year. Many beekeepers are ditching heather in favor of rapeseed. Pumping honey from heather really has special features, but it is not so difficult as to give up a few, or even several tens of kilograms of honey from a family. As for the second reason, there is no negative relationship between heather and rapeseed honey harvests. Rather, the opposite is true. Families that have been to the heather are doing very well and are better prepared for wintering and using early bribes than those that have been deprived of natural bribes since July.
Therefore, if it is possible to transport the apiary to the heather, it must be used.
When choosing a heather site, they give preference to young and sunnier ones: they bloom more amicably and emit more nectar. The time of transportation of families also depends on the quality of the moorland. On young, densely overgrown areas, the apiary can be taken out on the second or third day of their flowering, and the bees will find a sufficient number of flowers in the immediate vicinity of the apiary. It is better to come to the worst areas (sparse, shady, with old bushes) a week after the first flowers appear, so as not to force the bees to fly far and waste energy.
You should return from the heather well in advance so that the apiary has time to properly prepare for winter. Usually, the return takes place at the end of August - beginning of September.You should not wait for the end of flowering, since the nectar flow from the last flowers is minimal, and the losses from the late replenishment of winter stocks can be very significant. However, if it is very warm, and in the apiary there are pre-prepared sealed winter supplies in the amount of six to seven kilograms per family, you can extend your stay on the heather bribe until September 10-15. Whenever the apiary returns, the first thing the beekeeper has to do when he returns is to replenish winter supplies. An approximate survey to determine the needs of families, their strength and the structure of nests, should be carried out on a nomadic camp.
Use of honeydew honey collection
Grass bribes are available mainly in forests where honeydew producers (aphids, scale insects) find favorable microclimatic conditions for their development. The fall from deciduous trees does not play any significant role in the general harvest, although in some years it significantly increases. The most important for the beekeeper is the fall from spruce and fir.
Typical features of honeydew honey harvests that distinguish them from floral ones:
3) difficult forecasting
5) unsuitability for wintering.
It is impossible to predict where and in what quantities the pad will appear. Falls on spruce trees are more predictable in this sense than fall on fir trees, they appear every year on the same trees, albeit in different quantities, usually from mid-June to mid-July. However, it does not give such high weight gain as a fir pad. Spruce trees are found in old large forests growing on heavy, acidic, clayey soils. In good weather, the control hive scales can show a daily weight gain of three kilograms.
The fir pad is more capricious. In large quantities, it appears about once every four years, and then the daily weight gain can be seven to eight kilograms. In small quantities, they are more common, even for several years in a row, but not always in the same forest areas. The fall can be found on both old and young trees (more often on the latter). Fir pad can appear from the end of May to October. The largest collections are observed in June - July. Sometimes honeydew release is delayed, and its peak occurs in August - September. The duration of the honey harvest is also unknown: from one to two weeks to two to three months. The fact is that the development of honeydew growers is highly dependent on weather conditions during this period and throughout the year as a whole. A good family can get thirty or even fifty kilograms of honey from a fir pad under favorable weather conditions.
Paddy's unpredictability makes it difficult to use. And in order to determine when the honeydew will appear in the current year, it would be necessary to monitor the development of individual generations of aphids and worms from the moment of laying eggs to the mass appearance of adults, to know their appearance and development cycle. It is also difficult to determine where the fall will be this year. The richest sites can be located far from human habitation, in remote wilderness places. In some countries (Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia) there is a special service that searches for honeydew and notifies beekeepers about the presence of honeydew bribe. The development of the aphid-producing aphid is facilitated by a warm, dry autumn, a mild winter with abundant rainfall, and a warm and early spring. May to July (the insect breeding season that produces honeydew) should be humid and warm. The abundant discharge of the pad is associated with sufficient soil moisture in the spring and warm nights in the summer. If the summer is cold, windy, dry, and the nights are cold, the fall does not appear, or it appears in small quantities and immediately dries up, becoming inaccessible to the bees.
Most often, honeydew is found on trees growing in hollows protected from the wind, near streams or wet meadows, where fogs are frequent and the air stagnates. Height above sea level should not exceed 500 - 700 meters. In well-blown sunny places, there is usually no fall.
When bees collect honeydew and process it into honey, pollen does not enter the hive. Attention should be paid to this feature, since the lack of protein nutrition in families that work intensively in the pre-winter period can lead to serious losses.
Often, in colonies collecting late honeydew, 30 - 33 percent of bees crumble in winter. Weakened families cannot make full use of the spring and even early summer honey harvests. According to Nedzelkov (Bulgaria), the fall provokes a significant increase in bee diseases. However, the consequences of a shortage of pollen are already visible during the collection of honeydew: the bees fall ill with the so-called honeydew crib. Sick bees become apathetic, lose balance, their bodies “go bald” and blacken, yellow stripes are crumbling. Studies have established that one of the causes of the disease is precisely protein hunger, which manifests itself in tired pickers by chemical changes in the chitinous cover of their bodies. Therefore, if there is no natural influx of pollen, bees during this period need to be fed pollen feed in combs, collected earlier, or bee bread dough, or pounded with honey.
It is known from practice that honeydew honey is unsuitable for wintering - bees fall ill with diarrhea, crumble, families after wintering are greatly weakened or completely die. Honeydew honeys contain many particles indigestible by bees, mineral salts and polysaccharides. However, the Americans established a curious fact: the bees that hibernated in the honeydew and large reserves of pollen felt better during the spring flight than those that ate only flower honey without the addition of bee bread.
In an apiary that uses honeydew honey harvest, there must be strong families prepared for abundant harvests. During the pre-honey harvests, the uterus is not limited in sowing. The nests should have a supply of honey, the greater the later the apiary is taken out to the pad (four to ten kilograms). There should be a lot of brood in the colonies, since high daily harvests are very tiring for the bees, therefore the detachment of collecting bees must be constantly replenished with young bees. For earlier bribes (from June to the end of July), the apiary can be prepared in the same way as for abundant flower honey gatherings. At this time, colonies are at the peak of their development, there are many pollen-bearing plants in nature, and the remains of honeydew honey remaining in the combs with brood do not pose a danger to bees. However, as the stores fill up, the honey needs to be pumped out two or three times at the honey extractor, since it is impossible to allow too much of it in the nesting combs with brood. In addition, honeydew honey can easily crystallize in combs, especially in those not drained after honey from cruciferous plants, and then it can be difficult to pump out. When the daily weight gain of the honeydew flow is too great, the bees sometimes do not have time to seal the honey, then the unsealed combs are pumped out at the honey extractor. The honey store must be constantly monitored and, if necessary, expanded: honey must not be allowed to restrict the laying of eggs.
In the summer, for the summer honeydew honey harvest, you can take out the entire apiary, prepared for harvesting in one of the ways we already know.
Only specially prepared families (strong, with a large supply of honey and bee bread, with numerous brood) are taken out to the late pad. Regardless of this, the apiary should have stocks of sealed "honey" (from syrup), in the form of honeycomb frames or feed extensions, which were previously prepared by the same families. For each family collecting late pad, at least two or three sealed honeycomb frames should be prepared.
In the honeydew, families develop poorly (in contrast to heather), they lose many flying bees. Immediately after the selection of honey, the most weakened colonies are reinforced with layering or combined to provide good conditions for wintering.
Check-out time depends on the availability of the honeydew. It is better to leave as soon as information about its appearance arrives. Up to one hundred beehives can be placed in one parking lot of a mobile apiary. There is nothing to fear that there will be too many bees in relation to the amount of bribe, it is only a matter of providing bribes to the bees near the apiary.
Honey shops must be completely empty before departure, with no traces of flower honey. In this case, marketable honey will be purely honeydew.
If the nests have the correct structure and the honey stores expand in time, honeydew honey will accumulate in the extensions outside the nest. If the honeydew is in the sown honeycomb frames, they must be placed outside the nest and let the young bees come out, and the nest must be folded from honeycomb frames containing ready stocks and empty honeycombs. The frames with small "wreaths" of honeydew can be left in the nest, but as far as possible from the entrance, and then the portions of syrup can be increased so that the bees do not have time to consume the honeydew before the first spring flight.
The nest should contain at least two honeycomb frames with bee bread.
The apiary is returned immediately as soon as the increase in bribes stops, especially if the honey harvest is late. Families need to have time to prepare for winter, besides, the danger of theft increases (the greater, the more hives were concentrated in one place).