When growing tomato plants in a greenhouse and open ground, it is supposed to work on the formation of bushes. This measure is necessary to improve the growth of tomatoes and the ripening of fruits on them. As a rule, you need to pick off excess leaves and tomato shoots, which are called stepchildren. They only increase the amount of green mass on the bushes, consume the nutrients necessary for ripening tomatoes.
If you neglect this measure, the fruits of tomatoes will grow small, the plants will be sick, the quality of the harvest will be at a low level.
It is no secret that the foliage of any plant performs important functions of photosynthesis. And if you cut off all the leaves from the bush, it will simply die.
In the process of growth, the very first leaves on the bottom begin to age, come into contact with the soil surface, turn yellow and become stained. They are the ones provoke stagnation of air in the greenhouse and the development of diseases... If you think about it, they have fulfilled their function, the plant no longer needs them.
Withering foliage often becomes a source of diseases that, in greenhouse conditions, quickly affect those around the bush.
It is not recommended, coming to the garden, to cut off everything that the eye sees. The bushes are alive, they experience stress from any actions. So in one procedure do not remove a large number of leaves.
First of all, you need to break off those greens that lies on the ground... After a few days, you can examine the plants more closely, and if the tomatoes on the brush have grown to normal size, you can safely remove the foliage below.
As a rule, experienced gardeners perform a similar procedure twice a week, which allows the plant to form fruits in the clusters located above.
In addition, you should pay attention to:
Some gardeners start removing the lower foliage right away, as soon as the fruit cluster begins to bloom... A separate category assures that this should be done after how tomatoes will form.
You can argue endlessly, but there is a simple solution - to divide the bed into two parts and on each to cut off the leaves at different times, later comparing the results obtained.
Based on theory, during the period of flowering and the formation of the ovary, tomato brushes receive the necessary nutritional components formed as a result of photosynthesis directly from the leaves. A little later, as soon as the tomatoes begin to synthesize them on their own, the leaves can be cut off.
Specific deadlines to be determined in this impossible... Much depends on the type of culture, the characteristics of the climate in a particular area, the greenhouse microclimate. It is necessary to take the period of flowering and the appearance of fruits as a reference point. As soon as the vegetables begin to grow in size and turn brown, the lower leaves should be removed in stages.
In a normally developed bush thirty centimeters of the stem under the lower fruit cluster should be empty... Only in this case, he will receive the required amount of light, nutrients from the root system will begin to flow directly to the ripening tomatoes.
Feel free to add to this an increase in the level of air humidity, improved ventilation, and a decrease in the risk of diseases.
There are no strict rules for pruning that must be followed. It is believed that any plant tolerates removal without problems. up to three leaves twice a week... Sometimes a bush needs a more global procedure if a dangerous disease develops on it.
Gardeners remove foliage in a variety of ways. But it is best to choose the one that is more convenient and less harmful to tomato crops.
Do not pluck the foliage sharply, directing it down. This will leave large wounds on the plant, in which bacteria will immediately start to grow.
It is possible to break off the leaves by turning them slightly to the side clockwise, but this scheme is not ideal either.
To do everything right and not injure the plant, we advise you to do the following:
By acting in this way, you inflict minimal damage on the culture, which will dry out very quickly after processing. Instead of hydrogen peroxide, it is allowed to use manganese solution or activated carbon.
The basic rule that must be followed is that if the brush of the plant has not yet tied all the fruits, then most of the foliage must be left intact above it.
At the end of July - beginning of August, most gardeners start pinching the tops plants. It is already becoming obvious that the rest of the brushes will not have time to form the tomatoes. Remains on the plant seven to eight most developed brushesthat will give the harvest.
After a similar procedure, when you do not need to build up any greenery, all foliage can be trimmedleaving three to four on top. Firstly, you will not disturb the movement of the sap through the plant. Secondly, perform excellent prophylaxis against probable diseases.
As you can see, the measure is really necessary, it perfectly helps the plant in growth and fruiting. By following all the recommended advice, you can protect the beds from disease and get a decent harvest of tomatoes.
The main thing is to carefully examine the bushes, choose the right foliage for removal, and act carefully so as not to injure the culture.
Three main questions concern gardeners, especially beginners, all summer. How, why and when to pick leaves from tomatoes in a greenhouse. And in general, what are the leaves? Yes, for some beginners, greenhouse tomato care is a dark forest. And sometimes such a dark forest stands in greenhouses. For example, my neighbor literally crawls into hers on all fours, although she has a large six-meter polycarbonate greenhouse.
It is a pity for some to cut off something unnecessary from the bush, or they are afraid that they will suddenly do something wrong. So the poor are standing in the dark thicket and the bushes turn out to be weak, and the harvest suffers, and how many sores appear. After all, the most common fungal diseases of tomatoes just love to be humid, not ventilated and have a place to reproduce. They choose, of course, the comfortable lower leaves of the tomato. And then you worry why the leaves began to turn yellow, turn black, turn brown.
All gardeners face the problem of a lack of free space in the greenhouse. If you plant tomatoes closely, then the overgrown greens will begin to oppress neighboring plants, pinching will help in this case. You just need to understand the rules for doing the work and learn how to distinguish the shoots that need to be removed. Not every novice gardener can distinguish a fruitful shoot from stepsons. An unnecessary shoot appears only in the leaf axil, in the place from which the leaf grows, right above it.
Stepchildren are removed in the greenhouse in almost the same way as in a regular garden bed. Tomatoes tolerate such an operation painlessly if you follow a few rules.
After finishing pinching, you need to water the tomato bushes abundantly.
It is undesirable to use any tools, because of this, viral diseases can get into the wound. Better to do it with your hands. To do this, the process is taken with two fingers, and pinched at the base. When pinching, you need to leave a small stump 1-2 cm long, this is required so that a new shoot does not begin to grow in this place. Do not break off the sprouts by pulling it down - this can damage the tomato stem.
The first time the stepsons are cut off after 1 shoot is formed above the first inflorescence. Do not let it grow longer than 5 cm, it draws juices from a young and weak plant. It is more difficult to cut a long stepson without injuring the stem, and unnecessary wounds lead to infection of the bush with diseases.
It is best to go to sleep in the morning, with normal lighting and good ventilation. It is necessary that there is no rain and it is warm, start work with healthy and strong plants. Pinch loose bushes or diseased ones last. You will have to remove stepchildren about once every 7-10 days.
Removing excess shoots helps protect plants from fungal infection; fungal spores move between plants under the influence of rain and wind, especially when it is cool. After pruning, the aeration of the tomatoes is improved, which is especially important in a closed greenhouse. After pruning, the larvae of the pests will damage the plant less.
Of course, you cannot pick off many shoots and leaves at once. The green mass, using photosynthesis, produces nutrients, but part of the leaves must be cut off during pinching:
To prevent the spread of diseases, cut stepchildren are removed by placing them in a compost heap.
There are several schemes for pinching tomatoes, but they have a lot in common, the rules are the same for any method. The shoots are removed, preventing them from growing longer than 3-4 cm, if it is larger, then by cutting off the stepson you will make a long healing wound on the stem.
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, it is better to form them, leaving 1 stem. So you will get unheated plantings, air can move between the plants and each leaf will receive enough light.
To do this, as soon as the first inflorescence opens, a stepson will begin to develop under it. It is immediately cut off, along with the lower leaves, which are no longer needed and only prevent the airing of the tomato bushes from below.
After that, ruthlessly remove any processes in a timely manner, leaving flowering brushes and leaves located above. A bush formed in this way will be able to feed up to 50 high-quality brushes. Also, the formation of a tomato in 1 stem will increase the fruiting time.
With this formation, the main stem is first left on the plant, on which a strong lateral shoot is subsequently left. Most often, it appears in the axil of the leaf blade above the first brush. The shoots that appear after this are cut off until the end of the season.
The stepson is grown in the same way as the main stem. Most of the crop with this formation will grow on the lower and middle tier of the plant. When the main stem and stepson grow to a sufficient length, they are pinched. This operation will speed up the maturation of the crop and stop the growth of the entire plant.
This method of forming tomatoes is used for medium-sized varieties. At first, only one stem is grown per plant. When the first brush appears, wait until its growth stops. Then pinch the top and leave 2 stepsons that have appeared above the first inflorescence. Most often they are placed one above the other. The rest of the emerging shoots are cut off in a timely manner.
It is permissible to leave 3-5 shoots for low-growing varieties; more than 2-3 brushes should not grow on each of them. With a higher load, the bush grows slowly and bears less fruit, the fruits will grow small.
During the first garter of tomatoes, you can also trim unnecessary leaves in parallel, this will save time for additional procedures.
In the greenhouse, the habitat is less illuminated than natural, so timely pruning saves tomatoes from wilting and slow growth, and also accelerates the development of additional brushes and fruits
Novice gardeners are very skeptical about the procedure for pruning plants in greenhouse conditions, believing that this is not necessary and can harm weak shoots. Experts do not share their opinion and give an example that all plants live and develop due to the presence of positive environmental factors, which include moisture, fertilization in the soil and the presence of a sufficient amount of light.
In order for the fruits to ripen on time and all the forces of the plant were directed to the nutrition of the tomatoes, it is necessary to carry out pounding. The procedure is to remove the top of the stem. It is necessary to cut off the upper part when 5-6 brushes are formed on the stem. Each gardener decides on his own when to stop growing a tomato in order for the fruits to ripen. Trimming the tops is carried out with gloves and objects with a sharp blade. To obtain a normal harvest, it is necessary to form the bush correctly.
The plant must go through several stages:
You cannot remove all unnecessary leaves at a time, tomatoes will experience stress, which will affect the yield result and can lead the plant to disease and death. Tomatoes grow quickly, so you need to process the bushes weekly, otherwise they will fill up precious space in the greenhouse.
The most successful cultivation takes place in polycarbonate greenhouses. This material allows sunlight to penetrate freely. The greenhouse does a good job of retaining heat.
Tomato leaves are essential for maintaining optimal moisture as the process of photosynthesis takes place. Photosynthesis is the energy that gives plants growth and development.Indeed, nutrients pass through the leaves, thanks to which fruits are formed and ripen. The leaves also protect the fruits from overheating in hot summer.
That is why you need to know which leaves can and should be removed and which ones should be left. If you remove too many leaves that are necessary for plants, then the yield will be low, and the tomato bushes will hurt. And if you leave unnecessary leaves, this will lead to thickening of the bush and the plants will be poorly ventilated.
Hello dear readers! A leaf in a plant is exactly the same important and full-fledged organ as a limb in a person. Just like the root or stem, it is responsible for super important functions such as breathing and feeding.
That is why many people perceive the removal of leaves from tomatoes as a sadistic procedure, and she meets with a misunderstanding: why mutilate plants? So what is the essence of removing foliage? What is the need for this if the leaf is green and healthy?
We ourselves have not done this before, leaving all the foliage in the hope that with its green blanket it will protect the tomatoes from the scorching sun. Look at the photo above - what a jungle it is! But, as it turned out, such protection is ineffective - active sun rays incinerate the leaves along with the fruits. Therefore, now we are protecting our tomatoes with a shading mesh.
Everything flows and changes, which means it has a period of its existence. Leaves age and change color. They become covered with spots, dry out and weaken, no longer fulfilling their natural functions.
Such leaves need to be removed, and this should be done first of all, regardless of where the tomato grows - in a greenhouse or open ground. If the leaves are slightly damaged, only the affected part can be removed.
It is not worth cutting everything unnecessarily, the greens will still come in handy.
Tomato bushes grow strongly, and often some leaves are found in the middle of the tomato crown or on the north side of it. There is no sense from such leaves, and food is wasted on them only in vain. But after removing the old and unnecessary plantings, they will not thicken, and will be well ventilated and illuminated.
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In tomatoes, brush overgrowth often occurs. When the plant is slightly overfed or its variety is specific, the tomato can grow a new shoot from an already flowering cluster. As a result, another bush seems to grow from one bush. This is inconvenient, wrong, and unhelpful.
This shoot and all others like it should be removed already in the bud so that they do not have time to feast on the nutrients that you have saved for the future harvest. Such outgrowths are left only in rare cases, if, for some unfavorable reasons, fetuses have not been born on the mother's hands.
As a rule, only two to three lower leaves of the tomato are removed, and this should be done twice a week. But this rule is too general. If we look at the situation in detail and answer the questions "why" and "why", then we will understand that this is a difficult process with meaning and it is important to understand it and know exactly how and when to pick leaves from a tomato.
The main guideline is the size of the plant. The pruning should be in line with the growth of the tomato. There is an opinion that it is not recommended to remove more than two leaves at a time from the bush, because the plant is under stress and needs to be restored after pruning.
But experienced summer residents claim that not a single bush has died from intensive thinning, and they boldly cut off five or six leaves at a time. What to do is up to you. If it is possible to process the greenhouse every 3 days, choose a gentle method, if not, then rough pruning is your way.
In late June and early August, if we consider the climatic zone of the middle zone, bushes are pinched in greenhouses. By this time, the tomato has already formed 7-8 fruit clusters on itself, and its development can be stopped.
Pinching stops the growth of the plant, and all its forces are focused on fruiting, since if you leave the tomato with the opportunity to grow, it will not have time to pour the already existing fruits and will start the next.
After such a pinching, when we no longer need an increase in the green mass, all leaves, except for the topmost, three or four, are removed to maintain sap flow through the system. The greenhouse looks scanty and unusual after such pruning, but such "wildness" is an excellent prevention of late blight and motivates the tomatoes to ripen.
Tomato pruning is not done during cloudy and cool weather. It is harmful to remove leaves in the afternoon, but on a sunny morning - just right. The ideal cropping gap is from 9 am to 12 am. In a day, the wound on the stem will dry out and heal without decaying and not allowing the causative agent of the disease into itself.
Many people prefer to cut off the stepchildren and the extra leaf with scissors or pruning shears, but removing greenery with bare hands is also possible. The safe way is described above. The only important point I would like to point out is the cleanliness of the instrument.
Surely everyone has heard that movement is life, but professional sports or hard work leads rather to injuries, and life in this case slows down its rhythm a little. Extremes have not brought anyone to any good yet, and even more so for an enthusiastic summer resident with burning eyes and calloused palms.
You can suffer both from movement and without it. Everything is good in moderation. It is not for nothing that at all times gymnastics was the propaganda of physical education. This type of activity will always be relevant.
If you are one of those people who considers the hoe, the rake and the cultivator to be their only sports equipment, then I hasten to reassure you.
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After five years of such practice, you will not have enough of them and you will have to call doctors for help.
All these troubles can be prevented, starting from this moment, with the help of the video course of the physiotherapist Alexandra Bonina "Secrets of a Healthy Neck".